Tanzania , United Republic of (Swa. Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania)
- Gerhard Kubik
(Swa. Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania)
Country in East Africa. It has an area of 945,090 km² and a population of 33·69 million (2000 estimate). Tanganyika, a German colony from 1884 to 1919 and a British trust territory from 1919 to 1961, became independent in 1961. Zanzibar was a British protectorate from 1890 to 1963 when it became independent. In 1964 the two territories united to form one nation. Tanzania's population speaks KiSwahili (Swahili) as a national language, and most speak Bantu languages as their principal language. Exceptions include several communities living in the northern part of the Rift valley, such as the Hadzabe (also known as Hatsa, Kindiga or Tindiga), Sandawe, Iraqw, Gorowa, Burungi or Burunge and Maasai. (See fig.1 for a map of the distribution of ethnic groups referred to in this article.)
Tanzania is a country rich in artefacts that illuminate the past. The Irangi district, in particular, is valued by historians for its rock paintings, some of which depict dance scenes. Even in some present-day Tanzanian traditions, musical traits from the remote past are occasionally displayed, particularly in areas of central Tanzania and near Lake Eyasi....