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date: 21 November 2019

France (Fr. Republique Francaise)locked

  • François Lesure,
  • Claudie Marcel-Dubois
  •  and Denis Laborde


(Fr. Republique Francaise)

Country in Europe.

François Lesure

At the end of the 9th century, after the decline of Gallican chant, France was divided both linguistically and on the question of musical notation: the area in which the langue d’Oc was spoken used Aquitanian notation, while further north the notations of Brittany and Lorraine were employed (see Notation, §III, 1). So a Romanized liturgy was imposed, with the aim of standardizing the heterogeneous usages of Provence, Aquitaine and Burgundy. Based at the cathedrals, clerics and scholares united under the same rule to ensure the provision of singers for the Offices of the church and liturgical chant; choir schools were attached to these centres. In the 11th and 12th centuries, the focal point of the Carolingian renaissance shifted from Tours to Reims, together with the Capetian kings who regarded themselves as heirs to the Empire. Aquitaine resisted this pressure: south of the Loire there was unwillingness to accept Carolingian dominance, the episcopal schools and the merging of spiritual and temporal influences: and something of its regional character, and of the courtly art cultivated there, persisted in this area (...

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Annales musicologiques
J.R. Anthony: French Baroque Music from Beaujoyeulx to Rameau (London, 1973, 3/1997)
Recherches sur la musique française classique
Journal of the American Musicological Society
R. Strohm: The Rise of European Music (Cambridge, 1993)
Revue de musicologie