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date: 20 August 2019

Italy locked

  • Tullia Magrini,
  • Nino Pirrotta,
  • Pierluigi Petrobelli,
  • Antonio Rostagno,
  • Giorgio Pestelli,
  • John C.G. Waterhouse
  •  and Raffaele Pozzi


Country in Europe.

Tullia Magrini

Nino Pirrotta, revised by Pierluigi Petrobelli

The length and mountainous nature of the Italian peninsula, and its historical vicissitudes, have given its regional segments significantly different ethnic and linguistic profiles. Similar differences existed in the local ‘dialects’ of Western plainchant that developed during the early Middle Ages and continued in use until the imposition of Gregorian chant throughout most of Italy by the 11th century. In some areas of the peninsula, the Greek liturgies were followed, notably in the south where the Byzantine rite was celebrated in the old Basilian monasteries; Eastern practices are also known to have existed during the early medieval period in the Greek monasteries in Rome and in cities, such as Ravenna, that were once governed by Byzantium.

Traditionally, the origins of Roman chant were ascribed to Pope Gregory the Great (590–604), who, according to legends dating from the Carolingian era, composed the basic melodic repertory and established the Schola Cantorum as the model for the correct performance of liturgical music in the Western Church. However, there is no contemporary evidence to suggest that Gregory was particularly concerned with chant and it is now thought that the Schola Cantorum was founded in Rome during the second half of the 7th century. The repertory that bears his name – Gregorian chant – probably derives from the late 8th century, when the Carolingian kings attempted to introduce Roman chant into the Frankish lands. Whether Gregorian chant was actually sung in Rome at this time, however, is unclear and it has been suggested that it represents a ‘reworking’ of the genuine Roman repertory by Frankish cantors (...

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Acta musicologica
Musical Quarterly
Rivista musicale italiana
N. Pirrotta and E. Povoledo: Li due Orfei: da Poliziano a Monteverdi (Turin, 1969, enlarged 2/1975; Eng. trans., 1982, as Music and Theatre from Poliziano to Monteverdi)
Yearbook for Traditional Music
Nuova rivista musicale italiana
Analecta musicologica
Die Musikforschung
C. Sartori: Dizionario degli editori musicali italiani
The English Madrigal School, rev. as The English Madrigalists
19th Century Music
Journal of Renaissance and Baroque Music
Gazzetta musicale di Milano
Florence, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale, Dipartimento Musica
Enciclopedia dello spettacolo
Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart
G. Adler, ed.: Handbuch der Musikgeschichte (Frankfurt, 1924, 2/1930/R)
Cortona, Biblioteca Comunale e dell'Accademia Etrusca
Rivista italiana di musicologia
F. Stieger: Opernlexikon
K.G. Fellerer: Der Palestrinastil und seine Bedeutung in der vokalen Kirchenmusik des 18. Jahrhunderts (Augsburg, 1929/R)
Journal of the American Musicological Society
Proceedings of the Musical Association
Galpin Society Journal