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Two examples of music printed from woodblocks: (a) page showing note forms and ligatures from the ‘Musices opusculum’ of Nicolò Burzio, printed by Ugo de Rugeriis for Benedictus Hectoris (Bologna, 1487); (b) beginning of the Kyrie from Pipelare’s ‘Missa “

Two examples of music printed from woodblocks: (a) page showing note forms and ligatures from the ‘Musices opusculum’ of Nicolò Burzio, printed by Ugo de Rugeriis for Benedictus Hectoris (Bologna, 1487); (b) beginning of the Kyrie from Pipelare’s ‘Missa “L’homme armé”’, part of a page from the ‘Liber quindecim missarum’ (Rome: Andrea Antico, 1516), exemplifying woodcutting of the highest technical and artistic achievement [(a) 47%, (b) 27% of actual size]

Part of a page from ‘XX Songes’ (London, 1530), showing the beginning of Taverner’s ‘Love wyll I’ [67% of actual size]

Part of a page from ‘XX Songes’ (London, 1530), showing the beginning of Taverner’s ‘Love wyll I’ [67% of actual size]

Two examples of music printed by one pass through the press: (a) extract from Janequin’s ‘Fyez vous’, in the ‘Tiers livre contenant XXI chansons musicales a quatre parties’ (F-Pm 20, f.152v), printed and published by Pierre Attaingnant (Paris, 1536); (b)

Two examples of music printed by one pass through the press: (a) extract from Janequin’s ‘Fyez vous’, in the ‘Tiers livre contenant XXI chansons musicales a quatre parties’ (F-Pm 20, f.152v), printed and published by Pierre Attaingnant (Paris, 1536); (b) part of the discantus of Byrd’s ‘Miserere mihi, Domine’, from ‘Cantiones sacrae’ (with Tallis; London, 1575), printed by Thomas Vautrollier with type imported from France; both demonstrate the simplicity and logic, but also the shortcomings, of the one-note-one-type system with note head and stem cast on a single type containing segments of a complete staff system: observe also Attaingnant’s use of alternative, ‘squatter’ type to print notes one above the other [(a) 85%, (b) 80% of actual size]

Photo Giraudon, Paris

Purcell’s song ‘When Teucer from his father fled’ from the second edition of ‘Orpheus Britannicus’ (London, 1706), printed by William Pearson; the stems of quavers occurring in groups of two or more are ‘tied’ with a beam and the quavers are cast in two p

Purcell’s song ‘When Teucer from his father fled’ from the second edition of ‘Orpheus Britannicus’ (London, 1706), printed by William Pearson; the stems of quavers occurring in groups of two or more are ‘tied’ with a beam and the quavers are cast in two parts, looking forward to the ‘mosaic’ music types of the 1750s [86% of actual size]

Edmund Poole

By the 19th century ‘mosaic’ music type systems had reached their maximum complexity: part of the specimen sheet of Diamond Music, offered by V. & J. Figgins in London, containing 452 separate types in the fount which had to be supplemented by a large

By the 19th century ‘mosaic’ music type systems had reached their maximum complexity: part of the specimen sheet of Diamond Music, offered by V. & J. Figgins in London, containing 452 separate types in the fount which had to be supplemented by a large supply of specially cast spacing material

Edund Poole

18th-century music engravers’ tools, reproduced from the ‘Encyclopédie’: ‘Fig.1’ shows the five-pointed tool for pricking the position of staff systems (in two sizes) on the metal engraving plates; in ‘Fig.2’ a squared-up plate rests flat on a stone under

18th-century music engravers’ tools, reproduced from the ‘Encyclopédie’: ‘Fig.1’ shows the five-pointed tool for pricking the position of staff systems (in two sizes) on the metal engraving plates; in ‘Fig.2’ a squared-up plate rests flat on a stone under a straight edge (b), with two systems already cut by a scorer (‘Fig.3’); ‘Fig.4’ shows the plate completely scored, with some characters (made by the punches indicated in ‘Figs.6–7’) already in position; ‘Figs.A–D’ show a variety of punches; the text in the last line was engraved with a burin

Edmund Poole

Part of a stone plate etched with music in high relief, from the printing office of H. Gombart in Augsburg

Part of a stone plate etched with music in high relief, from the printing office of H. Gombart in Augsburg

St. Bride's Printing Library, Londond: from C. Wagner, Alois Senefelder, sein Leben und Wirken, Leipzig, 1914

Beginning of Act 1 of Wagner’s ‘Tannhäuser’, printed from the composer’s autograph; the score was written on lithographic transfer paper which was then laid down on to the stone

Beginning of Act 1 of Wagner’s ‘Tannhäuser’, printed from the composer’s autograph; the score was written on lithographic transfer paper which was then laid down on to the stone

Musicwriter (1973 model) designed by Cecil Effinger

Musicwriter (1973 model) designed by Cecil Effinger

Corinne Effingen - Owen, Music Print Corporation

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Fontes artis musicae
Edinburgh, National Library of Scotland, Music Dept
O. Mischiati: Indici, cataloghi e avvisi degli editori e librai musicali italiani (Florence, 1984)
Anuario musical
[flourished]
Journal of Music Theory
Sammelbände der Internationalen Musik-Gesellschaft
O.W. Neighbour and A. Tyson: English Music Publishers' Plate Numbers (London, 1965)
C.L. Day and E.B. Murrie: English Song-Books (London, 1940)
Musical Times
W.A. Fisher: One Hundred and Fifty Years of Music Publishing in the United States (Boston, 1933)
Early Music History
Nuova rivista musicale italiana
F. Kidson: British Music Publishers, Printers and Engravers
J.J. Fuld: The Book of World-Famous Music
Music & Letters
C. Johansson: French Music Publishers' Catalogues (Stockholm, 1955)
R.J. Wolfe: Early American Music Engraving and Printing (Urbana, IL, 1980)
M.K. Duggan: Italian Music Incunabula: Printers and Type (Berkeley, 1991)
C. Humphries and W.C. Smith: Music Publishing in the British Isles
A.H. King: Four Hundred Years of Music Printing (London, 1964)
H. Dichter and E. Shapiro: Early American Sheet Music
Music Review
London, Royal College of Physicians
Journal of Musicology
R.M.A. [Royal Musical Association] Research Chronicle
O.E. Deutsch: Music Publishers' Numbers (London, 1946)
Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning
A. Devriès and F. Lesure: Dictionnaire des éditeurs de musique français
Acta musicologica
J. Benzing: Die Buchdrucker des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts (Wiesbaden, 1963, 2/1982)
Musical Antiquary
C. Hopkinson: A Dictionary of Parisian Music Publishers 1700-1950
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Tijdschrift van de Vereniging voor Nederlandse muziekgeschiedenis [and earlier variants]
Journal of the American Musicological Society
International Musical Society: Congress Report [II-IV, 1906-11]
London, British Library
D.W. Krummel: English Music Printing (London, 1975)
M. Przywecka-Samecka: Drukarstwo muzyczne w Polsce do konca XVIII wieku (Kraków, 1969)
A. Weinmann: Wiener Musikverleger und Musikalienhändler von Mozarts Zeit bis gegen 1860 (Vienna, 1956)
C. Sartori: Dizionario degli editori musicali italiani
Neue Zeitschrift für Musik