- William Waterhouse
(b Hirschberg [now Jelenia Góra, Poland], March 31, 1853; d Leipzig, Jan 16, 1940). German flautist, teacher and inventor . He performed as principal flautist in the Gewandhaus Orchestra from 1881 to 1917, and taught at the Leipzig Conservatory from 1908 to 1932. Schwedler was the last major exponent of the conical-bore ‘simple-system’ flute, whose advantages he strove to retain whilst matching the manifest advantages of Boehm's 1847 system. In 1885 he designed the ‘Schwedler-Kruspe flute’, built for him by Friedrich Wilhelm Kruspe. In 1898 Schwedler designed his ‘Reformflöte’, collaborating with F.W. Kruspe's son, Carl jr (established since 1893 in Leipzig), which he later improved in 1912. Among improved features of these models were head-joint in metal, redesigned embouchure-hole and a mechanism to facilitate the fingering of F/F♯. After a rift with Krupse, Schwedler’s later models were made from 1917 by Moritz-Max Mönnig (1875–1949), the last of which Hindemith dubbed ‘the six-cylinder flute’, because of its technical complexity. These developments are documented in his ...