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date: 21 February 2020

Czech Republiclocked

  • John Clapham,
  • Oldřich Pukl,
  • L. Tyllner,
  • Karel Vetterl,
  • Marta Toncrová
  •  and Oskár Elschek
  • , revised by Jan Smaczny


Country in central Europe. It was established in 1992 after the break-up of Czechoslovakia into two separate republics. Czechoslovakia had been created in 1918 out of the former Habsburg territories of Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia. This reflects the composition of the 9th-century kingdom of Great Moravia. Slovakia fell to the Magyars in 906 (and remained part of Hungary and later the Habsburg Empire until 1918); Bohemia, with a strong line of Přemyslid princes and kings, became dominant and in 1029 formally incorported Moravia as a margravate. The teachings of Jan Hus gave the kingdom a largely Protestant character, eroded neither by five assaults by imperial and crusader armies (1419–31) nor by the election of a Habsburg as king in 1526. After the Battle of the White Mountain (1620), in which the Czech nobility were defeated by the Habsburgs, Bohemia and Moravia became virtual provinces of the Habsburg Empire and were forced to adopt its language and religion. Reaction to this culminated in the 19th-century national revival, which in turn led to independence and union with Slovakia in ...

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G. Adler, ed.: Handbuch der Musikgeschichte (Frankfurt, 1924, 2/1930/R)
Hudební veda
Studia musicologica Academiae scientiarum hungaricae
19th Century Music
Ceskoslovensky hudební slovník
G.J. Dlabacž: Allgemeines historisches Künstler-Lexikon
Slovník ceské hudební kultury (Prague, 1997)