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Jewish music I. Introduction 2. The study of Jewish music.: Ex.1 Early notation, with keyboard accompaniment, by E. Aguilar and D.A. de Sola of a traditional Sephardi melody for the ‘Song of Moses’ (Az yashir Moshe) from the Sabbath morning liturgy (The Ancient Melodies of the Liturgy of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews, London, 1857, p.9)

Jewish music I. Introduction 2. The study of Jewish music.: Ex.1 Early notation, with keyboard accompaniment, by E. Aguilar and D.A. de Sola of a traditional Sephardi melody for the ‘Song of Moses’ (Az yashir Moshe) from the Sabbath morning liturgy (The Ancient Melodies of the Liturgy of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews, London, 1857, p.9)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 2. Synagogue music and its development. (i) Psalmody. (b) Verse structure and chant.: Ex.2 Psalm xix according to the Moroccan tradition; Jerusalem, National Sound Archives Y 1992 (Flender, 1992, ex.1)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 2. Synagogue music and its development. (i) Psalmody. (b) Verse structure and chant.: Ex.2 Psalm xix according to the Moroccan tradition; Jerusalem, National Sound Archives Y 1992 (Flender, 1992, ex.1)

Ṭa‘amei kaf-alef sefarim: Cantillation signs for the 21 books of the Hebrew Bible (when two names appear, A. = Ashkenazi, S. = Sephardi)

Ṭa‘amei kaf-alef sefarim: Cantillation signs for the 21 books of the Hebrew Bible (when two names appear, A. = Ashkenazi, S. = Sephardi)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 2. Synagogue music and its development. (ii) Biblical cantillation. (b) The Tiberian system of ‘ṭe‘amim’.: Ex.3 Ṭe‘amim for the Pentateuch: table of motifs: (a) east European Ashkenazi tradition as performed in Jerusalem (Vinaver, 1955, pp.23–4) (b) Portugese Sephardim of Amsterdam and New York (Lopes Cardozo, 1991, p.10)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 2. Synagogue music and its development. (ii) Biblical cantillation. (b) The Tiberian system of ‘ṭe‘amim’.: Ex.3 Ṭe‘amim for the Pentateuch: table of motifs: (a) east European Ashkenazi tradition as performed in Jerusalem (Vinaver, 1955, pp.23–4) (b) Portugese Sephardim of Amsterdam and New York (Lopes Cardozo, 1991, p.10)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 2. Synagogue music and its development. (ii) Biblical cantillation. (b) The Tiberian system of ‘ṭe‘amim’.: Ex.4 Deuteronomy xxxii.1–4: Iranian rural psalmody (Idelsohn, HoM, iii, 1922/R, no.8)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 2. Synagogue music and its development. (ii) Biblical cantillation. (b) The Tiberian system of ‘ṭe‘amim’.: Ex.4 Deuteronomy xxxii.1–4: Iranian rural psalmody (Idelsohn, HoM, iii, 1922/R, no.8)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 2. Synagogue music and its development. (ii) Biblical cantillation. (b) The Tiberian system of ‘ṭe‘amim’.: Ex.5 Exodus xiii.17: Yemenite ornate style (Adaqi and Sharvit, 1981, no.23)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 2. Synagogue music and its development. (ii) Biblical cantillation. (b) The Tiberian system of ‘ṭe‘amim’.: Ex.5 Exodus xiii.17: Yemenite ornate style (Adaqi and Sharvit, 1981, no.23)

Ṭa‘amei emet: cantillation signs for Psalms, Ecclesiastes and Job

Ṭa‘amei emet: cantillation signs for Psalms, Ecclesiastes and Job

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 2. Synagogue music and its development. (iii) Modal improvisation of prayers.: Ex.6 Beginning of the qeddushah, Ioánnina (Yanina) tradition of Greece (Shiloah, 1992, p.97)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 2. Synagogue music and its development. (iii) Modal improvisation of prayers.: Ex.6 Beginning of the qeddushah, Ioánnina (Yanina) tradition of Greece (Shiloah, 1992, p.97)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 2. Synagogue music and its development. (iii) Modal improvisation of prayers.: Ex.7 Nonsensical syllables in the birkat kohanim (priestly benediction): Moroccan tradition (Idelsohn, HoM, v, 1929, no.237)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 2. Synagogue music and its development. (iii) Modal improvisation of prayers.: Ex.7 Nonsensical syllables in the birkat kohanim (priestly benediction): Moroccan tradition (Idelsohn, HoM, v, 1929, no.237)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 2. Synagogue music and its development. (iv) Poetry.: Ex.8 Lekha dodi, a piyyuṭ composed by Rabbi Salomon Alkabetz for the Welcoming of the Sabbath, as sung to a traditional Sephardi melody widespread in Jerusalem, North Africa and western Europe (transcr. I. Levy, Antología de la liturgia judeo-española, Jerusalem, 1964, i, no.14)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 2. Synagogue music and its development. (iv) Poetry.: Ex.8 Lekha dodi, a piyyuṭ composed by Rabbi Salomon Alkabetz for the Welcoming of the Sabbath, as sung to a traditional Sephardi melody widespread in Jerusalem, North Africa and western Europe (transcr. I. Levy, Antología de la liturgia judeo-española, Jerusalem, 1964, i, no.14)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 3. Ashkenazi. (ii) To the 16th century.: Ex.9 South German centonized weekday chant (J. Lachmann, Awaudas Jisroeil: der israelitische Vorbeterdienst, i, Leipzig, 1899, no.64)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 3. Ashkenazi. (ii) To the 16th century.: Ex.9 South German centonized weekday chant (J. Lachmann, Awaudas Jisroeil: der israelitische Vorbeterdienst, i, Leipzig, 1899, no.64)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 3. Ashkenazi. (ii) To the 16th century.: Ex.10 Eric Werner’s attempt to reconstruct the original structure of the Kol nidrei melody (Werner, 1976, p.36)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 3. Ashkenazi. (ii) To the 16th century.: Ex.10 Eric Werner’s attempt to reconstruct the original structure of the Kol nidrei melody (Werner, 1976, p.36)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 3. Ashkenazi. (iii) The 17th and 18th centuries.: Ex.11 Excerpt from Joseph Goldstein, ‘Aleinu leshabbeaḥ (Idelsohn HoM, vi/2, 1932, no.21)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 3. Ashkenazi. (iii) The 17th and 18th centuries.: Ex.11 Excerpt from Joseph Goldstein, ‘Aleinu leshabbeaḥ (Idelsohn HoM, vi/2, 1932, no.21)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 3. Ashkenazi. (iii) The 17th and 18th centuries.: Ex.12 Aron Beer, Menuetto for Melekh ‘elyon (Idelsohn, HoM, vi/1, 1932, no.359)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 3. Ashkenazi. (iii) The 17th and 18th centuries.: Ex.12 Aron Beer, Menuetto for Melekh ‘elyon (Idelsohn, HoM, vi/1, 1932, no.359)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 3. Ashkenazi. (iii) The 17th and 18th centuries.: Ex.13 Excerpts from Solomon Kashtan, the Priestly Blessing (US-CIhc Birnbaum Mus. W.78)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 3. Ashkenazi. (iii) The 17th and 18th centuries.: Ex.13 Excerpts from Solomon Kashtan, the Priestly Blessing (US-CIhc Birnbaum Mus. W.78)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 3. Ashkenazi. (iii) The 17th and 18th centuries.: Ex.14 Nigun dvéikus, attr. Rabbi Jacob Telechaner, Court Composer of the Rebbe of Koidanov (Vinaver, 1985, no.68)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 3. Ashkenazi. (iii) The 17th and 18th centuries.: Ex.14 Nigun dvéikus, attr. Rabbi Jacob Telechaner, Court Composer of the Rebbe of Koidanov (Vinaver, 1985, no.68)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 3. Ashkenazi. (iii) The 17th and 18th centuries.: Ex.15 Scales and motifs of Ashkenazi shteygers: (a) maġen avot (b) adonai malakh (c) ahavah rabbah

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 3. Ashkenazi. (iii) The 17th and 18th centuries.: Ex.15 Scales and motifs of Ashkenazi shteygers: (a) maġen avot (b) adonai malakh (c) ahavah rabbah

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 4. Sephardi. (iv) Ottoman Empire.: Ex.16 ‘El mistater beshafrir ḥevyon’ by Abraham Maimin (fl 17th century) as sung by the Jews of Aleppo (Idelsohn, HoM, iv, 1923, no.400)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 4. Sephardi. (iv) Ottoman Empire.: Ex.16 ‘El mistater beshafrir ḥevyon’ by Abraham Maimin (fl 17th century) as sung by the Jews of Aleppo (Idelsohn, HoM, iv, 1923, no.400)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 4. Sephardi. (vi) Italy.: Ex.17 ‘Akh zeh ha-yom qiviti’, piyyuṭ for Purim as sung by the Portuguese community of Livorno, Italy (transcr. F. Consolo, Libro dei canti d’Israele: antichi canti liturgici del rito degli Ebrei Spagnoli, Florence, 1892, no.105)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 4. Sephardi. (vi) Italy.: Ex.17 ‘Akh zeh ha-yom qiviti’, piyyuṭ for Purim as sung by the Portuguese community of Livorno, Italy (transcr. F. Consolo, Libro dei canti d’Israele: antichi canti liturgici del rito degli Ebrei Spagnoli, Florence, 1892, no.105)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 5. Yemen.: Ex.18 The Song of the Sea (Exodus xv), verses 5–8, as performed by Yemenite Jews.

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 5. Yemen.: Ex.18 The Song of the Sea (Exodus xv), verses 5–8, as performed by Yemenite Jews.

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 5. Yemen.: Ex.19 Part of a typical performance of the priestly blessing in the Yemenite tradition.

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 5. Yemen.: Ex.19 Part of a typical performance of the priestly blessing in the Yemenite tradition.

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 5. Yemen.: Ex.20 Musical phrase from a three-part verse from the Pentateuch cantillation according to the Yemenite tradition: ‘P2’, a special preparatory motif sung on the sign (trope) zirgå, indicating the end of the subordinate clause immediately preceding the final clause of the first part of the verse; ‘P1’, a preparatory motif built on the beginning of the cadential motif, indicating the end of the subordinate clause immediately preceding the final clause of the second part of the verse; ‘P’, a preparatory motif built on the final part of the cadential motif, indicating the end of any subordinate clause immediately preceding the final clause of the whol verse; ‘I1’, interim motif built on the opening part of the cadential motif, indicating the end of any subordinate clause in the verse; ‘I’, a more developed form of ‘I1’, indicating the end of any main clause in the verse; when approaching the end of the verse these two interim motifs become more developed still; ‘H’, a heralding motif, whose structure forms the whole part of of the cadential motif, indicting the end of the penultimate main clause of the whole verse; ‘C1’, a cadential motif indicating the end of the second part of the verse; ‘C’ a more developed form of ‘C1’ used to indicate the end of the entire verse.

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 5. Yemen.: Ex.20 Musical phrase from a three-part verse from the Pentateuch cantillation according to the Yemenite tradition: ‘P2’, a special preparatory motif sung on the sign (trope) zirgå, indicating the end of the subordinate clause immediately preceding the final clause of the first part of the verse; ‘P1’, a preparatory motif built on the beginning of the cadential motif, indicating the end of the subordinate clause immediately preceding the final clause of the second part of the verse; ‘P’, a preparatory motif built on the final part of the cadential motif, indicating the end of any subordinate clause immediately preceding the final clause of the whol verse; ‘I1’, interim motif built on the opening part of the cadential motif, indicating the end of any subordinate clause in the verse; ‘I’, a more developed form of ‘I1’, indicating the end of any main clause in the verse; when approaching the end of the verse these two interim motifs become more developed still; ‘H’, a heralding motif, whose structure forms the whole part of of the cadential motif, indicting the end of the penultimate main clause of the whole verse; ‘C1’, a cadential motif indicating the end of the second part of the verse; ‘C’ a more developed form of ‘C1’ used to indicate the end of the entire verse.

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 6. Iraq (Babylonian).: Ex.21 Az yashir Moshé (Exodus xv.1), biblical cantillation according to the Babylonian tradition (as performed by Rev. E.H. Alberg; transcr. S. Manasseh from Folkways FR 8930)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 6. Iraq (Babylonian).: Ex.21 Az yashir Moshé (Exodus xv.1), biblical cantillation according to the Babylonian tradition (as performed by Rev. E.H. Alberg; transcr. S. Manasseh from Folkways FR 8930)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 6. Iraq (Babylonian).: Ex.22 Shéma‘ yisraél, a seliḥoth chant for Yom Kippur (as performed by D. Dangoor, Bombay, 1985; transcr. S. Manasseh)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 6. Iraq (Babylonian).: Ex.22 Shéma‘ yisraél, a seliḥoth chant for Yom Kippur (as performed by D. Dangoor, Bombay, 1985; transcr. S. Manasseh)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 6. Iraq (Babylonian).: Ex.23 El nora ‘alilah, a piyyuṭ sung at the closing service on Yom Kippur (as performed by D. Dangoor, Bombay, 1985; transcr. S. Manasseh)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 6. Iraq (Babylonian).: Ex.23 El nora ‘alilah, a piyyuṭ sung at the closing service on Yom Kippur (as performed by D. Dangoor, Bombay, 1985; transcr. S. Manasseh)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 6. Iraq (Babylonian).: Ex.24. Yom yom odeh, a Babylonian paraliturgical song (shbaḥ) sung at Shabu‘oth before the reading of the Ten Commandments (as performed by Y. Baher, Manchester, 1985; transcr. S. Manasseh)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 6. Iraq (Babylonian).: Ex.24. Yom yom odeh, a Babylonian paraliturgical song (shbaḥ) sung at Shabu‘oth before the reading of the Ten Commandments (as performed by Y. Baher, Manchester, 1985; transcr. S. Manasseh)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 8. Central and East Asia. (iii) Afghanistan.: Ex.25 El ram ḥasin yah (‘the Lord above is a powerful God’): piyyuṭ for the Festivals by the poet Shelomoh as performed by the Jews of Afghanistan (transcr. Seroussi and Davidoff, 1999, p.165)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 8. Central and East Asia. (iii) Afghanistan.: Ex.25 El ram ḥasin yah (‘the Lord above is a powerful God’): piyyuṭ for the Festivals by the poet Shelomoh as performed by the Jews of Afghanistan (transcr. Seroussi and Davidoff, 1999, p.165)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 8. Central and East Asia. (iv) Tajikistan and Uzbekistan (Bukhara).: Ex.26 Bukharan Pentateuch cantillation, as sung by Yakub Meer Ochildiev: Genesis xli.17–19 (transcr. T. Levin)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 8. Central and East Asia. (iv) Tajikistan and Uzbekistan (Bukhara).: Ex.26 Bukharan Pentateuch cantillation, as sung by Yakub Meer Ochildiev: Genesis xli.17–19 (transcr. T. Levin)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 8. Central and East Asia. (iv) Tajikistan and Uzbekistan (Bukhara).: Ex.27 The Bukharan Sabbath song Deror yiqra, as performed by Izra Malakov (transcr. T. Levin)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 8. Central and East Asia. (iv) Tajikistan and Uzbekistan (Bukhara).: Ex.27 The Bukharan Sabbath song Deror yiqra, as performed by Izra Malakov (transcr. T. Levin)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 8. Central and East Asia. (iv) Tajikistan and Uzbekistan (Bukhara).: Ex.28. Tiqqunei ha-zohar, second introduction (17a–b), as sung by Izra Malakov (transcr. T. Levin)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 8. Central and East Asia. (iv) Tajikistan and Uzbekistan (Bukhara).: Ex.28. Tiqqunei ha-zohar, second introduction (17a–b), as sung by Izra Malakov (transcr. T. Levin)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 9. Ethiopia (Beta Israel/Falasha).: Ex.29 Beta Israel prayer Kalḥu kwellu malā’ekt (‘All the angels proclaimed’), as performed by Gete Asrass, 12 May, 1973

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 9. Ethiopia (Beta Israel/Falasha).: Ex.29 Beta Israel prayer Kalḥu kwellu malā’ekt (‘All the angels proclaimed’), as performed by Gete Asrass, 12 May, 1973

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 10. Karaite.: Ex.30 Weekday mode, morning prayer (Nehemiah ix.5), as sung by Rabbi Elgamil, Ramlah, 1978: ‘Stand up and bless the Lord your God for ever and ever’ (transcr. J. Hirshberg)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 10. Karaite.: Ex.30 Weekday mode, morning prayer (Nehemiah ix.5), as sung by Rabbi Elgamil, Ramlah, 1978: ‘Stand up and bless the Lord your God for ever and ever’ (transcr. J. Hirshberg)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 10. Karaite.: Ex.31 Exile mode, Rabbi Eli Marzuk, Ramlah 1986: ‘Remember, O Lord, what is come upon us/Consider and behold our reproach./Our inheritance is turned to strangers/our house to allies’ (transcr. J. Hirshberg)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 10. Karaite.: Ex.31 Exile mode, Rabbi Eli Marzuk, Ramlah 1986: ‘Remember, O Lord, what is come upon us/Consider and behold our reproach./Our inheritance is turned to strangers/our house to allies’ (transcr. J. Hirshberg)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 10. Karaite.: Ex.32 Metric congregational song: Song of the Sea (Numbers, xv.1), San Francisco, 1984: ‘I will sing unto the Lord/for he hath triumphed gloriously./The horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea’ (transcr. J. Hirshberg)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 10. Karaite.: Ex.32 Metric congregational song: Song of the Sea (Numbers, xv.1), San Francisco, 1984: ‘I will sing unto the Lord/for he hath triumphed gloriously./The horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea’ (transcr. J. Hirshberg)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 10. Karaite.: Ex.33 Old paraliturgical melody as privately recorded by Rabbi Lieto Nono (1960s): ‘The time of love, my beloved, come into my garden’ (paraphrase of Ezekiel xvi.8, Song of Songs x.1) (transcr. J. Hirshberg)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 10. Karaite.: Ex.33 Old paraliturgical melody as privately recorded by Rabbi Lieto Nono (1960s): ‘The time of love, my beloved, come into my garden’ (paraphrase of Ezekiel xvi.8, Song of Songs x.1) (transcr. J. Hirshberg)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 10. Karaite.: Ex.34 A more recent paraliturgical melody of the same song, as recorded in Jerusalem (1978)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 10. Karaite.: Ex.34 A more recent paraliturgical melody of the same song, as recorded in Jerusalem (1978)

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 10. Karaite.: Ex.35 A new paraliturgical song by Moshe Tanani, Ramlah, 1989: ‘Lord, please open the gates of heaven/Lord, erect the edifice of Jerusalem./Lord, let your light glow on the righteous/Lord my God’.

Jewish music III. Liturgical and paraliturgical 10. Karaite.: Ex.35 A new paraliturgical song by Moshe Tanani, Ramlah, 1989: ‘Lord, please open the gates of heaven/Lord, erect the edifice of Jerusalem./Lord, let your light glow on the righteous/Lord my God’.

Jewish music IV. Non-liturgical music 2. Folksongs in Jewish languages. (i) Judeo-Arabic. (a) Yemen.: Ex.36

Jewish music IV. Non-liturgical music 2. Folksongs in Jewish languages. (i) Judeo-Arabic. (a) Yemen.: Ex.36

Jewish music IV. Non-liturgical music 2. Folksongs in Jewish languages. (i) Judeo-Arabic. (a) Yemen.: Ex.37

Jewish music IV. Non-liturgical music 2. Folksongs in Jewish languages. (i) Judeo-Arabic. (a) Yemen.: Ex.37

Jewish music IV. Non-liturgical music 2. Folksongs in Jewish languages. (i) Judeo-Arabic. (b) Iraq.: Ex.38 Pesaḥ hagadah song, as sung in (a) Aramaic and (b) Judeo-Arabic (transcr. S. Manasseh)

Jewish music IV. Non-liturgical music 2. Folksongs in Jewish languages. (i) Judeo-Arabic. (b) Iraq.: Ex.38 Pesaḥ hagadah song, as sung in (a) Aramaic and (b) Judeo-Arabic (transcr. S. Manasseh)

Jewish music IV. Non-liturgical music 2. Folksongs in Jewish languages. (i) Judeo-Arabic. (b) Iraq.: Ex.39 Pilgrimage/bridegroom song in Judeo-Arabic, as performed by Ḥibbah, 1980s (transcr. S. Manasseh)

Jewish music IV. Non-liturgical music 2. Folksongs in Jewish languages. (i) Judeo-Arabic. (b) Iraq.: Ex.39 Pilgrimage/bridegroom song in Judeo-Arabic, as performed by Ḥibbah, 1980s (transcr. S. Manasseh)

Jewish music IV. Non-liturgical music 2. Folksongs in Jewish languages. (i) Judeo-Arabic. (b) Iraq.: Ex.40 Afaki, a song for the ḥenna ceremony in the Judeo-Baghdadi dialect

Jewish music IV. Non-liturgical music 2. Folksongs in Jewish languages. (i) Judeo-Arabic. (b) Iraq.: Ex.40 Afaki, a song for the ḥenna ceremony in the Judeo-Baghdadi dialect

Jewish music IV. Non-liturgical music 2. Folksongs in Jewish languages. (i) Judeo-Arabic. (b) Iraq.: Ex.41 Ash sawwet Ben Guryon, song in Baghdadi dialect and modern Hebrew (transcr. S. Manasseh from the recording Shiloah and Avishur, 1988)

Jewish music IV. Non-liturgical music 2. Folksongs in Jewish languages. (i) Judeo-Arabic. (b) Iraq.: Ex.41 Ash sawwet Ben Guryon, song in Baghdadi dialect and modern Hebrew (transcr. S. Manasseh from the recording Shiloah and Avishur, 1988)

Jewish music IV. Non-liturgical music 2. Folksongs in Jewish languages. (ii) Judeo-Spanish. (d) The Romancero.: Ex.42 Arboler or La vuelta del marido (‘The husband’s return’) (coll. and transcr. I.J. Katz)

Jewish music IV. Non-liturgical music 2. Folksongs in Jewish languages. (ii) Judeo-Spanish. (d) The Romancero.: Ex.42 Arboler or La vuelta del marido (‘The husband’s return’) (coll. and transcr. I.J. Katz)

Jewish music IV. Non-liturgical music 2. Folksongs in Jewish languages. (iv) Central and South Asian languages.: Ex.43 Chuukla ailla, a song for circumcision and bar-mitzvah sung by the Mountain Jews (transcr. P. Eliyahu, 1999, no.32)

Jewish music IV. Non-liturgical music 2. Folksongs in Jewish languages. (iv) Central and South Asian languages.: Ex.43 Chuukla ailla, a song for circumcision and bar-mitzvah sung by the Mountain Jews (transcr. P. Eliyahu, 1999, no.32)

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