- Juozas Antanavičius
- and Jadvyga Čiurlionytė
Country in eastern Europe. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was created in the 13th century. Lithuania was the last European state to convert to Christianity (1387–1413). In 1386 Grand Duke Jogaila was crowned King of Poland, and for 350 years Lithuania and Poland were united. During this period Russia, Prussia and Austria made territorial claims, and the Lithuanian-Polish state was partitioned three times. After the third partition (1795) Lithuania was a province of the Russian empire for almost 125 years. Tsarist oppression, with press and stage censorship, the closing of Vilnius University and the imposition of the Russian language in schools, theatres and publishing, provoked a national liberation movement. Following the revolution in Russia, Lithuania was proclaimed a sovereign state in 1918. In 1919 Poland began an occupation of southeastern Lithuania, including Vilnius (the capital), that lasted almost 20 years; Kaunas served as the capital during this period. After Lithuania was annexed by the Soviet Union in ...