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date: 17 October 2019

South Africa, Republic oflocked

  • David K. Rycroft,
  • Angela Impey,
  • Gregory F. Barz,
  • John Blacking,
  • Jaco Kruger,
  • C.T.D. Marivate,
  • Caroline Mears,
  • James May
  •  and David Coplan

Extract

Country in Southern Africa. With an area of 1,224,691 km², it occupies the southernmost tip of the continent, bordered by Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe to the north and by Swaziland and Mozambique to the north-east ( fig.1). Lesotho, Kingdom of is an independent enclave in the mountains in the east of the country. In the north-west is the vast Kalahani desert, where most of the remaining Bushmen (San) peoples (see Bushman music), the earliest inhabitants of the region, and the Khoikhoi (Hottentot) peoples live (see Khoikhoi music).

South Africa was colonized by the Dutch in 1652 and also by the British in the 19th century; it became a dominion within the British Empire in 1910 and an independent republic in 1961. Although less than 11% of the total population of 46·26 million (2000 estimate) are whites, of European descent, a system of apartheid or segregation, which deprived blacks, Coloureds (mixed race) and Asians of constitutional equality (though they represent 77%, 9% and 3% of the population respectively), became official policy when the ...

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