- Bettina Brand
(b Bremen, Jan 31, 1948). German composer and sound-installation artist. She studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Stuttgart (1967–8) and at the Musikhochschulen in Hamburg, Graz and Zürich (1969–74). In 1974 she moved to Milan, where she studied at the Milan Conservatory with Donatoni and Paccagnini. In performance events of the 1970s she began to integrate spatial areas and unusual performance techniques. After studying electrical engineering at the technical institute in Milan (1980–81), she concentrated on sound installations and sound sculptures, working with electro-magnetic earphones that interact with electric cables to depict the history and structure of spaces. Lighting has played an important role in her works from 1986 (see illustration ). In 1991 she began to use solar energy, increasing the fluidity of transitions between the visible and the audible, the natural and the technological. She has taught at art colleges in Münster, Berlin and Paris (from ...