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Twelve-note compositionlocked

  • Dave Headlam,
  • Robert Hasegawa,
  • Paul Lansky
  •  and George Perle


A method of composition in which the 12 notes of the equal-tempered chromatic scale, presented in a fixed ordering (or series) determined by the composer, form a structural basis for the music. It arose in the early years of the 20th century, when the dissolution of traditional tonal functions gave rise to several systematic attempts to derive a total musical structure from a complex of pitch classes that are not functionally differentiated. Skryabin’s Seventh Sonata (...

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Musical Quarterly
Journal of Music Theory
Perspectives of New Music
Journal of the American Musicological Society
Music Review