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date: 28 February 2020


  • Dimitrije Bužarovski
  •  and Trena Jordanoska


The Republic of Macedonia is a state in the central Balkans. It occupies the northern part of historical Macedonia, a wider region that also includes territories of the Hellenic Republic (the Republic of Greece), the Republic of Bulgaria, the Republic of Serbia, and the Republic of Albania. As a crossroads of the Balkans, and on a transit route for the southern Balkan Peninsula, Macedonia has been inhabited since the earliest periods of human civilization in south-eastern Europe. The migrations of the tribes from the Russian steppes, the Pontic basin, and the Lower Danube created a rich cultural heritage, evident in the archeological sites from the Neolithic and Eneolithic periods. The ancient Macedonian kingdom expanded eastwards from about 700 bce and reached its climax during the reign of Alexander the Great (336–323 bce). In 146 bce Macedonia became a Roman province. The construction of the Via Egnatia road, which connected the Adriatic and Aegean seas from Dyrrachium (present-day Durrës) to Thessaloniki, influenced the development of the inland cities such as Lychnidos (present-day Ohrid) and Heraclea Lyncestis (present-day Bitola), while the Morava–Vardar north–south route contributed to the development of the cities of Stobi and Scupi (present-day Skopje). A catastrophic earthquake in 518 ...

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