Worldwide distribution of performing positions on harps, regardless of historical period (there are minor variations in the angle of the harp in relation to the human body; the depicted harp is intended to be generic and does not represent any particular type; information on some performing positions is derived from iconographic sources): a – Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo (East), Gambia, Senegal, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Mali, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Siberia; formerly Mesopotamia b – Mauritania; formerly Egypt, Minoan, Mesopotamia c – Gabon, Cameroon, Chad, Congo, Central African Republic; all Western harps, and Western-influenced harps in the Philippines, Mexico, Peru, Paraguay, Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia, Argentina, Chile; formerly Egypt d – Chad (south-west); Chile and Peru (only in processions; the harp is turned upside-down and the neck of the harp rested on the shoulder of the harpist, who can then play while walking); formerly Mesopotamia, Middle and Far East, Central Asia, west Asiatic areas; Italo-Greek areas e – Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo (only Zande and Zande-influenced peoples), Gambia (Jole), Guinea (Wasulu), Georgia (Caucasus), Afghanistan, India, Myanmar; formerly Middle East and East Asia, Central Asia, Indonesia f – Chad (south-west), Cameroon (north) [the harp rests entirely on the ground and the performer squats with the resonator close to the body]
Horizontal arched (a, c, d, f, g, i, j) and angular harps (b, e, h): (a) Iran, 2300–2100 BCE, seal impression (see also Iran, fig.3c); (b) Shar-i Sokhta, Iran, ?2400 BCE, terracotta plaque; (c) Bismaya, Mesopotamia, 2100 BCE, relief on stone vase; (d) Tell Asmar, Mesopotamia, 1950–1530 BCE, terracotta plaque; (e) Tell Asmar, Mesopotamia, 1950–1530 BCE, terracotta plaque; (f) Thebes, Egypt, 1504–1452 BCE, extant shoulder harp; (g) Thebes, Egypt, 1380–1320 BCE, extant harp; (h) Iran, 400–800 BCE, silver plate; (i) Pendzhikent, Tajikistan, 700–20 BCE, wall painting; (j) Nāgārjunakonda (India), 100–300 BCE, stone sculpture
Access to the complete content on Grove Music Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.
If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.