- Hugh Davies
Instruments specially constructed or adapted for performing music in microtonal tuning systems or to give accurate tuning in temperaments other than the ‘standard’ 12-note Equal temperament (ET). This article covers all such approaches, thus including not only unequal temperaments but also equal subdivisions of the octave that are more (occasionally less) than 12. Although some specialists limit the meaning of ‘microtonal’ to intervals that are less than a quarter-tone, others more logically apply it to all intervals that are smaller than the semitone, adopting the term ‘macrotonal’ for the few tunings that use larger intervals (primarily nine-, ten- and 11-note). This article deals only with Western instruments; instruments constructed in other parts of the world for the performance of music in systems of intonation other than 12-note ET are dealt with under their own headings....