- Carole Pegg
(b 1936, Hovd, west Mongolia; d Aug 1998). Altai Urianghai Mongol epic bard (tuul'ch). Avirmed performed in the deep declamatory häälah vocal style and accompanied himself on the two-string plucked lute, Topshuur Although born after the communist revolution in Mongolia, Avirmed inherited this traditional vocal style and associated folk-religious beliefs (see Mongol music). At least seven generations of Avirmed's lineage were bards; his grandfather is believed to have been the famous bard Jilker. Included in Jilker's repertory were the epics Bayan Tsagaan Övgön (‘Rich White Old Man’), Argil Tsagaan Övgön (‘Snow White Old Man’) and Naran Han Hövgüün (‘The Boy Naran Khan’), all of which were also performed by Avirmed. Other members of Avirmed's family who performed included his father, Baatar, and uncles Buyan, Shirendev and Rinchen. Avirmed began training seriously at the age of 13 years. His principal teacher was his paternal uncle, Shirendev. After ten years, he gained recognition as a bard by performing throughout two whole nights before Jilker, his pupil Choisüren and Shirendev. He then received the ...