- Richard Crawford
(b Dunfermline, Scotland, Nov 25, 1835; d Lenox, MA, Aug 11, 1919). American philanthropist and arts patron of Scottish birth. Born in poverty, he immigrated to Allegheny, Pennsylvania, in 1848 and rose, in one of the most successful careers in American business history, to become the dominant figure in the international steel industry. He came to believe that the accumulator of a fortune had a duty to spend it for the good of mankind, and he devoted much energy during his last 40 years to philanthropy. His benefactions centered on educational projects and the promotion of world peace, for which he endowed various foundations. He also supported some musical activities. He contributed about $6,000,000 to the building of organs for churches in the USA and the British Empire. Although he believed that concert organizations should be self-supporting, he lent his name and some of his time and money to several. These included the New York Oratorio Society and the New York SO, both of which were conducted by Walter Damrosch (son-in-law of Carnegie’s good friend, the politician James G. Blaine) and for both of which Carnegie served as president briefly from ...