Drum ’n’ bass [jungle]
- Emily Ferrigno
A genre of electronic dance music that emerged in the early 1990s in England. Drum ’n’ bass draws on sampled drum breaks (typically from 1960s and 70s soul and funk records), heavy bass lines from Jamaican dub reggae, and a variety of melodic and harmonic material inspired by the genres of techno, hardcore, and hip hop. Its tempo is fast—often 160 beats per minute and higher—although many listeners perceive the bass lines as moving at half the speed of the drum breaks.
The roots of drum ’n’ bass derive from “jungle.” Jungle was heavily influenced by Jamaican music and culture, including the utilization of heavy bass, Jamaican patois, symbols of Rastafarianism, and marijuana use. Essential to the growth of jungle in London were pirate radio stations, which transmitted it via illegal signals from housing projects. In the mid-1990s, jungle producers forwarded a less aggressive and more atmospheric sound, which became known as “drum ’n’ bass.” Notable producers of jungle and drum ’n’ bass include Shy FX, A Guy Called Gerald, Kemistry and Storm, Timecode, 4hero, Goldie, and Roni Size....