Nightclubs and other venues
The history of jazz in terms of the venues that have fostered it is the history of nightlife in different cities, and thus has as much to do with social, general cultural, commercial, and political history as it does with musical history. The following list, organized geographically, represents the only published comprehensive international and historical catalogue of these venues.
The list is arranged alphabetically by country, by city within country, and by name of venue (the definite article in all languages is ignored for purposes of alphabetical ordering); the only exception to this arrangement is the category of cruise ships and riverboats, which are entered under the names of the ocean or river on which they traveled. Addresses are given where possible, and the dates between which a certain address was current are supplied if they are known. Where the nature of a venue is not evident from its title, an effort has been made to supply a definition. Dates of operation are supplied when they are known, but if they are not available some indication is usually given of the period during which the venue is known to have flourished: this should not be taken to mean that it was in existence at no other time, simply that the sources consulted contain information only on the period indicated....