- Vergilij Atanassov
- and Radmila Petrović
Double-headed drum of Bulgaria, Macedonia, Kosovo, and Serbia, deriving from the Turkish Davul. Variant names for it in Bulgaria include tupan, topan, toba, and daul, and in former Yugoslavia goč (goch) or, in eastern Serbia, tupan. The shell is made of a hollowed log or a piece of wood or bark bent to form a cylinder 25 to 35 cm deep and 40 to 60 cm in diameter (sometimes up to 80 cm). Over the ends are stretched the two heads of kid- or sheepskin, which are attached with hemp lacing. The player (called the tupandžija or tupanar) hangs the tapan from his left shoulder, usually on a string or belt, and beats the heads with specially made wooden drumsticks. Strong beats are marked on the right-hand head with a thick drumstick (ukanj) and weak beats on the left with a lighter cornel-wood wand (...