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date: 15 November 2019


  • Alastair Dick
  • , revised by Jonathan Katz


Drone chordophone or Plucked drum, of Maharashtra, western India. The metal string is fastened at the underside of a goatskin membrane pasted over the open bottom of a cylindrical wooden resonator. As in the coṇak the string passes through a hole in the membrane and up through the resonator to the upper end of a stick that is nailed vertically to the side of the cylinder; unlike the coṇak, however, the string is attached at this upper end to a tuning peg by which it is tuned to the tonic of the music being performed. The tuṇtuṇe is held under the left arm and plucked with a small plectrum, giving both a monotone drone and a rhythmic accompaniment to bardic or devotional songs and in folk drama.

The noone guddalavani burra of Andhra, south India, is similar save that the resonator tapers and is often of metal. It also accompanies vocal music and, as its name indicates, it is used by soothsayers....

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