Adufe [pandeiro, quadrado]
- John M. Schecter
Hand-beaten frame drum, of Muslim origin, played in Iberia, Latin America, and North Africa. Typically, a wooden frame about 30 to 45 cm square and 6 to 9 cm deep is covered with sheep or goat skin on one or both sides. Triangular and hexagonal shapes are occasionally found nowadays. The heads are normally tacked on and the tacks covered by ribbon, or in Morocco a single skin can be stitched over the frame. Rattling elements are sometimes enclosed. In Spain and Portugal it is played primarily by women (see illustration) often to accompany their singing. In Portugal it is prominently used with other instruments to accompany the charamba, a circle-dance performed by couples, and various Christian processions. In Guatemala string ensembles (zarabandas) incorporate adufe that have an interior rattle or bell. In Brazil it is called pandero or quadrado and is played (often in pairs) for the May ...