Changhao (‘long signal’)
- Alan R. Thrasher
Generic name for trumpets of the Han Chinese and minority cultures in Xinjiang province and areas of southwestern China. Names of related trumpets include laba (la refers to Lamaism; ba is used for phonetic value), haotong (‘signal tube’), and tongjiao (‘copper horn’). Chinese trumpets, constructed of copper or an alloy, are mostly straight, though bell designs differ and some trumpets are sharply curved at the bell end. All typically have two or three separate sections of tubing which telescope together for storage (the sounding length is not changed during performance). The integral mouthpiece has a wide flattened rim and a very small hemispheric cup. Dimensions and pitch are not standardized, but the extended length of trumpets with curved-back bells reaches about 110 cm; straight trumpets range from 150 to 180 cm long. Pitches on long trumpets tend to be limited to the fundamental plus one or two overtones; on the short ...