- Andrew C. McGraw
Term for bamboo flutes in Flores, Indonesia, which, unlike the Florenese feko (similar to the Javanese suling), incorporate an internal node and external duct, and can include internal ducts. The basic duct form of such flutes is constructed by boring two holes in the tube, one above and one below an internal node located near the top (at approximately ¼ of its total length) of the tube. A shallow groove is cut into the outside of the tube connecting these two holes; a small strip of palm leaf is affixed to the front of the tube covering just the top hole and diverting the air stream on the outside of the tube across the lower hole, which produces the sound. This leaf-ring is threaded through two slits cut into the outer layer of the tube wall on either side of the top hole. The leaf-ring can be replaced by a strip of bamboo or wood tied to the tube with palm cord. This duct structure is most often positioned on the forward wall of the tube; in some areas of Nagé and Ngada, the duct faces the performer. Below this duct are three to six fingerholes. This basic structure is elaborated in several regional forms....