- Henry Johnson
End-blown flute of Japan. The term differentiates an 18th-century form of the shakuhachi from similar instruments such as the hitoyogiri and the shakuhachi used only in early forms of gagaku (sometimes called the gagaku shakuhachi). The term komusō-shakuhachi was used in the Edo period (1600–1868) for the same instrument, and the term kyotaku(‘empty bell’) was used in the manuscript Kyotaku denki (1795) to refer to the fuke-shakuhachi. The modern shakuhachi is directly related to the fuke-shakuhachi, which was used by monks of the Fuke sect of Zen Buddhism by the mid-18th century. However, in comparison with later versions of the instrument, the fuke-shakuhachi generally has a narrower tube without a flared distal end and lacks the smooth coating of the bore that many later shakuhachi have, although some modern players use instruments that do not have a smooth bore, a form known as ji-nashi...