- Margaret J. Kartomi
- , revised by Andrew C. McGraw
Double-headed drum of Nias, Indonesia. It consists of a hollowed tree trunk, up to 1 metre long and 75 cm wide, with goatskin or deerskin stretched across both ends by means of rattan hoops and ropes. Sometimes two lengths of rattan, with several small sticks laced between them, are stretched on to the head that is not played, acting as a kind of snare. Traditionally the drum is played by one or two players using rattan sticks with a loop at the head. Several göndra may be hung on the rafters of the front room of a traditional house. Today the instrument is often placed horizontally in a high stand and is played by two musicians, one on either side, striking the heads with bamboo sticks. In this circumstance one musician maintains a steady pulse while the other improvises with syncopated patterns. In modern contexts the drum is played in an ensemble with the ...