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date: 14 November 2019


  • Margaret J. Kartomi
  • , revised by Andrew C. McGraw


Local variety of guitar or ukulele, in various forms, of Indonesia and Malaysia. It is said that the small kroncong is derived from the Portuguese braguinha. The name is used also for popular ensembles that comprise, for example, ukulele (cuk, larger size, and cak, smaller), melody guitar, cello (played pizzicato and percussively), double bass, violin, transverse flute, and singer. Other instruments, such as bongo drums, may be added, and when playing langgam Jawa songs certain gamelan instruments such as the siter may also be used. The ensemble is apparently of Portuguese-Indonesian origin and several centuries old. Contemporary hybrids of kroncong and rock music (rockcong) or kroncong and jazz (kroncong-jazz) either transfer the kroncong repertoire to the standard Western band or add instruments such as electric guitar and drum set to the traditional kroncong ensemble.

B. Kornhauser: ‘In Defence of Kroncong’, Studies in Indonesian Music, ed. ...

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