- Mireille Helffer
- , revised by Gert-Matthias Wegner
- and Simonne Bailey
Drum of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. It is derived from the Indian concert drum pakhāvaj. The double-conical body has two goatskin heads laced in a zigzag pattern. The centre of the higher-pitched skin, on the longer section of the body, is coated with black tuning paste made from iron ore, overcooked rice, resin, and other ingredients. The lower-pitched head is tuned with flour dough which is removed after each performance. Small blocks of wood under the lacing can be moved for tuning. The drum is struck by the hands and is played along with shawms and cymbals in various Newar ensembles, for example to accompany dance....