- Carol M. Babiracki
Single-string plucked stick zither of the Santāl people of Orissa, Bihar, and West Bengal, India. The body is a long bamboo tube with a flexible stick inserted in each of the two open ends. A hemp playing string is tied to the free ends of the sticks, arching them inwards; the string is held parallel to the tube and about 20 to 25 cm away from it. Alternatively, the playing string can be attached directly to one end of the tube and at the other end to a long stick peg affixed perpendicularly into the tube. In both versions a long bamboo basket resonator is attached to the underside of the tube at its centre, with the open end facing downwards. The basket is covered with decorative paper and streamers.
The player holds the tube in one hand and plucks the playing string with the other. The instrument adds rhythm and a drone of indefinite pitch to the instrumental ensembles accompanying Santali communal dances....