- Pribislav Pitoëff
Double-headed drum of Kerala, south India. The body is a cylinder of jackwood, 55 cm tall and 22 cm in diameter. The heads are glued to two hoops of wood or bamboo, 32 cm in diameter and 4 cm high, and held very taut at either end of the body by W-shaped lacings, each tuned by a movable ring placed on the lacings. On some modern ceṇḍa the heads are attached with metal screw rods. The heads are of cow- or calfhide: one head is made of a single layer, the other has six or seven extra layers glued on the inside. The drum is held vertically by a fabric strap passed over the player’s shoulder; a great variety of strokes is obtained on the thin head, either by two curved sticks or by one stick and a hand; the other head is occasionally beaten to mark the time....