- Ivan Mačák
Slovakian flutes. The bezdierkové píšťalky are harmonic flutes without fingerholes. The simplest, ephemeral types (lupštik, ďahýlová píšťalka) are made of hollow stems that quickly dry out. Types made from elder wood are called kosáčik. The player’s tongue directs a stream of air across the open top. Two series of partials are obtained by opening and closing the distal end. The length of such flutes depends on the length of the player’s arm. The goralská píšťala (a duct flute) is 50 to 80 cm long and is made of a bored branch. A wooden block inserted into the upper end leads the air stream to the sharp edge. The koncovka, formerly widespread in northwestern Slovakia, is made of a stick split in half, hollowed, rejoined, and covered with bark or small roots. The wooden block inserted into the top sticks out of the tube and the player blows into its side. A similar flute, ...