- R. Conway Morris
- and Johanna Spector
Bagpipe of Turkey and Azerbaijan. The bag is made of goat- or sheepskin and the cane double chanter is inserted into a trough-like wooden stock; there is no separate drone pipe. Both pipes of the chanter have five parallel fingerholes. Some instruments have a wooden chanter with two parallel bores. The idioglot single reeds are down-cut. In Turkish instruments, two or three of the upper holes in one of the pipes are sometimes sealed with beeswax, and the chanter often has an integral rectangular upturned wooden bell or attached cow-horn bell, or occasionally no bell at all. The mouthpipe has no non-return valve; the player stops the pipe with his tongue. The tulum is the main instrument of the semi-migrant stock-raising population of northeastern Anatolia, but in Azerbaijan it is now rare except in Nakhichevan, where it is used to accompany songs and dances.L. Picken: Folk Musical Instruments of Turkey...