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date: 18 November 2019


  • J. Richard Haefer


Struck idiophone of the Creole and Black cultures of Suriname. A wooden bench about 60 to 70 cm long by 20 to 30 cm wide and 10 cm tall is beaten with two thick sticks called kula or nkula; the performer squats beside the bench. It is played at religious feasts and rituals to establish the basic rhythm for songs and dances. In the bush a wooden box or two pieces of wood often substitute for the bench. The kwakwa might have been developed when the playing of drums by slaves was forbidden, but a more likely origin is the ...

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