- J. Richard Haefer
End-blown flute of the Guaymí (Ngäbe) people of Panama and Costa Rica. It was made traditionally from a leg bone of a deer or jaguar, but nowadays is made of cane, about 35 cm long. It is played in a girls’ puberty ceremony and a stylized male fighting game.
Another flute used by the Guaymí is the dru nöra, a double duct flute of cane with two tubes tuned a 5th apart. Wax is used to form the duct and to hold the two tubes together. The dru mugata is a globular vessel flute formed entirely of a sphere of beeswax with two or three fingerholes and a blow hole. The flutes are often played together with the ton, a calabash rattle with a spiked wooden handle, and the caja, a short double-headed drum of cedro or balsa with a head of boar’s hide, or the gnelé friction idiophone, a tortoiseshell covered with beeswax and rubbed by the hand....