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Article

John E. Druesedow

The international conflict known at first as the Great War was precipitated by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary and his wife, Duchess Sophie, on 28 June 1914 in Sarajevo. By the end of July 1914, diplomatic tensions had risen to the breaking point; declarations of war among the principle belligerents ensued. The United States, under President Woodrow Wilson, maintained an official policy of neutrality until early April 1917, when it entered the war on the side of the Allies. Combat operations ceased with the signing of the Armistice at 11:00 a.m. on 11 November 1918, and the war was concluded with the Treaty of Versailles, signed on 28 June 1919.

During those five years from 1914–19, the music-loving public in the United States was treated to a gradually increasing flood of popular sheet music publications, many of which reflected the mood and sentiments of the nation as it moved toward joining the Allies in Europe and marching into the combat zones. At first there was no lack of pacifist-leaning songs, the most well-known of which was “I didn’t raise my son to be a soldier,” by Alfred Bryan (lyrics) and Al Piantadosi (music) and published by Leo Feist of New York in ...

Article

John C. Hajduk

When the United States declared war on the Axis Powers after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, virtually every segment of society was primed to do their part in achieving victory, and those involved with music were no exception. Composers and performers representing every style of music pitched in to create songs that would inspire the troops, motivate defense workers, and generally keep the morale of the nation high as it undertook the challenges of global conflict. Already by the end of 1941, records like Gene Krupa’s “Keep ‘em Flying” and Sammy Kaye’s “Remember Pearl Harbor” signaled that war-themed tunes were on the rise. Over the next four years, nearly every genre of music, both popular and serious, was utilized to promote the nation’s war aims. These included sentimental ballads, including “The White Cliffs of Dover,” where the war connection was muted, for it was hard to miss the resonance such songs had for those with loved ones in the service. Novelties like “Der Fuehrer’s Face” and “G.I. Jive” were more explicitly tied to war topics, and conveyed a powerful sense of optimism about the inevitable Allied victory. Patriotic themes were also evident in the concert hall in works such as Aaron Copland’s ...

Article

Wornum  

Peter Ward Jones

[Wornham]

English family of music publishers and piano makers . Robert Wornum (i) (b ?Berkshire, 1742; d London, 1815) was established in Glasshouse Street, London (c1772–7), and then at 42 Wigmore Street (c1777–1815). He published many small books of dances and airs for the flute or violin, and was also a maker of violins and cellos. His son Robert Wornum (ii) (b London, bap. 19 Nov 1780; d London, 29 Sept 1852) went into partnership with George Wilkinson in a piano business in Oxford Street from 1810 to about 1813. Following his father’s death in 1815 Robert (ii) continued the family business making pianos, moving in 1832 to Store Street, Bedford Square. He played an important role in developing small upright pianos which were acceptable as articles of drawing-room furniture. Wornum invented the diagonally and vertically strung low upright pianos in 1811...

Article

English organization based in London. Its aim is to promote all aspects of the art and science of music. It grew from the London Fellowship of Minstrels, which became a guild in 1500, and it took its present name in 1604 when it was granted a charter by James I.

Because of the presence of the king’s and other royal minstrels in London, the London Fellowship was until 1500 prevented from becoming a guild and from acquiring the virtual monopoly of music-making in the city and its environs that similar groups outside London possessed. Its privileges were improved by a charter of Edward IV (1469), which created the ranks of marshal and two wardens (all members of the King’s Musick), and gave the London Fellowship control over the musical profession throughout the country (except for Cheshire where a separate arrangement obtained). This gave the fellowship some protection against unauthorized competition, but it did not resolve the conflict of rights between it and the royal and aristocratic bodies within London. With the charter of James I, the London guild was transformed into the Worshipful Company of Musicians, granted the civic influence and prestige of other livery companies, and given control over all music-making in and within three miles of London (except for Westminster and Southwark). Its relationship with the royal and aristocratic bands, however, remained precarious; in ...

Article

William C. Smith

revised by Peter Ward Jones

English music sellers, printers and publishers , established in London. As Wright & Wilkinson, or Wright & Co., they succeeded Elizabeth Randall and advertised themselves as ‘Successors to Mr. Walsh’, whose business had passed to her through her husband William Randall. From February 1785 to 1803 the firm was known by the name of H. Wright, standing for Hermond or Harman Wright. It is chiefly notable for the reissue of many of Handel's works from the Walsh plates, and for the first publication in full score of a number of his oratorios, including ...

Article

Frank Kidson

revised by William C. Smith and Peter Ward Jones

(fl London, 1709–35). English music publisher . He was established in London by 1709, and occasionally employed the engraver Thomas Cross. He also claimed to be a musical instrument maker, and died or retired about 1735. His son Daniel Wright had a business at different premises from 1730 to about 1735, for a while using a sign which his father had briefly used before him. He probably gave up trading about 1740, and John Johnson may have founded his business on that of the Wrights, as he issued some works from their plates. From about 1730 to 1735 the names of both Wrights appear on some imprints.

Hawkins summed up the character of the elder Wright as a man ‘who never printed anything that he did not steal’. While the Wrights were perhaps the most notorious musical pirates of their time, copying numerous publications, especially those of John Walsh, such copying was not illegal. Their publications were copied in turn. They also issued works under the same titles as those of Walsh or very similar ones, including a ...

Article

Cynthia Adams Hoover, Roslyn Rensch and Hugh Davies

American firm of instrument makers and dealers of German origin.

Cynthia Adams Hoover

(Franz) Rudolph Wurlitzer (b Schöneck, Saxony, 31 Jan 1831; d Cincinnati, 14 Jan 1914) came to the USA in 1853; he settled in Cincinnati and began dealing in musical instruments in addition to working in a local bank. It is likely that he was one of a long line of Saxon instrument makers, beginning with Heinrich Wurlitzer (1595–1656), a lute maker. By 1860 he had a thriving trade and is said to have been a leading supplier of military wind instruments and drums during the Civil War. In 1865 he opened a branch in Chicago and in 1872 joined his brother Anton to form the partnership of Rudolph Wurlitzer & Bro. On 25 March 1890 the firm was incorporated as the Rudolph Wurlitzer Company. Rudolph served as president of the corporation from 1890 to 1912...

Article

Cynthia Adams Hoover, Roslyn Rensch and Hugh Davies

Firm of instrument makers and dealers of German origin.

Rudolph Wurlitzer (Franz Rudolph Wurlitzer; b Schöneck, Saxony, 31 Jan 1831; d Cincinnati, OH, 14 Jan 1914) came to the United States in 1853; he settled in Cincinnati and began dealing in musical instruments in addition to working in a local bank. It is likely that he was one of a long line of Saxon instrument makers, beginning with Heinrich Wurlitzer (1595–1656), a lute maker. By 1860 he had a thriving trade and is said to have been a leading supplier of military wind instruments and drums during the Civil War. In 1865 he opened a branch in Chicago and in 1872 joined his brother Anton to form the partnership of Rudolph Wurlitzer & Bro. On 25 March 1890 the firm was incorporated as the Rudolph Wurlitzer Company. Rudolph served as president of the corporation from 1890 to 1912...

Article

Harry Eskew

(b Cambridge, MA, March 31, 1770; d Philadelphia, Jan 23, 1858). American music publisher . Although he established a general bookstore and publishing house in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and was responsible for issuing the city’s newspaper, Wyeth also published much sacred music. His Repository of Sacred Music, Part Second (Harrisburg, 1813, 2/1820/R) was the first shape-note collection to contain a sizable number of folk hymns, and greatly influenced later collections. His earlier Repository of Sacred Music (Harrisburg, 1810/R) reached six editions by 1834. He also published three German tunebooks, Joseph Doll’s Der leichter Unterricht (Harrisburg, 1810), Isaac Gerhart and J.F. Eyer’s Choral-harmonie (Harrisburg, 1818) and Johannes Rothbaust’s Die Franklin Harmonie (Harrisburg, 1821). See also Shape-note hymnody, and Spiritual, §I.

DAB (C.W. Garrison) I. Lowens: ‘John Wyeth’s Repository of Sacred Music, Part Second (1813): a Northern Precursor of Southern Folk-Hymnody’, ...

Article

Hans Radke

revised by Peter Király

(b Zürich, ?1517–27; d before 1572). Swiss wood-cutter and printer . Son of Heinrich Wyssenbach, a shopkeeper, he was a wood-cutter in the employ of the Zürich printer Christoph Froschauer the elder from 1544. Around 1548 Wyssenbach set up his own press. In October 1551 he went into business with the printer Andreas Gessner the younger, but the partnership was dissolved by the end of 1553. Apparently he again worked as a wood-cutter and printer for Gessner from around 1557 to 1559.

Wyssenbach took the pieces in his Tabulaturbuch uff die Lutten (Zürich, 1550/R, 2/1663 as Ein schön Tabulaturbuch) from Francesco Canova da Milano and Borrono’s Intabulatura di lauto, libro secondo (Venice, 1546). He transcribed them from Italian into German lute tablature, as he pointed out in the title and in the preface, in which he also mentioned the signs for Mortanten, but, according to his explanation, the execution of these ornaments needed oral instruction. He omitted the fantasias and included only two of Janequin’s songs in arrangements by Francesco. However, he adopted exactly the same order as that of the original for Borrono’s eight dance suites. One piece in Peter Fabritius’s lute manuscript (...

Article

Yaddo  

John Shepard

revised by Jessica Payette

Artists’ colony and music festival. The colony, established according to specifications in the will of Spencer and Katrina Trask, hosted its first visiting artists in 1926. The Trasks amassed a fortune in the expansion of American railroads and devised plans for the future of their 400-acre estate near Saratoga Springs, New York, in 1899. The 55-room mansion houses up to 40 artists for visits spanning two to eight weeks and provides isolated studios to composers and choreographers. Elizabeth Ames (1885–1977), the executive director from Yaddo’s inception to 1969, extended invitations to numerous composers, including Aaron Copland, Roy Harris, and Virgil Thomson, before the formal application process commenced in the mid-1940s. Subsequent composers in residence have included Leonard Bernstein, Chou Wen-chung, David Del Tredici, Ned Rorem, and Michael Tilson Thomas. Copland campaigned for the establishment of an annual music festival; however, only nine Yaddo Music Festivals, all presented in the mansion’s 300-seat music room, were held sporadically from ...

Article

Peggy Daub and Victor T. Cardell

One of two administrative units for the study of music within Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut (the other being the Department of Music). A musical society was established at the university by 1812. In 1890 music was added to the formal curriculum, and Gustave J. Stoeckel was appointed professor of music. By 1894 a music school was created and degrees in music were awarded. Horatio Parker served as the first dean of the school from 1904 to 1919. The School of Music awarded its first MM in 1932. In 1958 it became exclusively a graduate professional school, and in 1968 it began a DMA programme, in which performers and composers must prove themselves as professionals before receiving the degree. The Institute of Sacred Music was established in 1973 in affiliation with both the School of Music and the School of Divinity. In the late 1990s the School of Music enrolled 185 students and had 60 faculty members. Performing ensembles include the Yale Philharmonia Orchestra, one of the best student orchestras in the USA. Concerts are given in Woolsey Hall (cap. ...

Article

Jere T. Humphreys

An important seminar on music in the public schools held 17–28 June 1963 at Yale University, sponsored by the US Office of Education. Led by musicologist Claude V. Palisca of Yale, the 31 attendees were critical of school music education, especially the quality of music taught. They cited a need to teach knowledge of musical structure while stressing “performance, listening, ear training, rhythmic movement, and composing with emphasis placed on the individual student.” The seminar led to the development of the Juilliard Repertory Project....

Article

Article

Yazoo  

Thane Tierney

Record company. It was formally established in New York City by Nick Perls in 1967, although the label’s first five albums were issued on the Belzona Records label; initially, the company concentrated on topic-specific overview compilations taken from blues and jazz 78s (such as The Georgia Blues, 1927–1933 and Guitar Wizards, 1926–1935), but the company also gained recognition for its single-artist compilations. Among the many performers they featured were the likes of Reverend Gary Davis, Mississippi John Hurt, Blind Willie McTell, and Joe Venuti.

In 1970 Perls set up a sister label, Blue Goose, which featured contemporary recordings of both blues and “old-timey” music; chief among the label’s contributors was the cartoonist R. Crumb, who, along with his band (the Cheap Suit Serenaders), cut three albums and a single for the label. Other artists included Jo Ann Kelly, Son House, and Rory Block.

Just prior to his death in ...

Article

Stephanie Vander Wel

Yodeling is a vocalization that uses the larynx muscles and glottal stops to accentuate the abrupt change of vocal register between the chest register and the falsetto or head register. During their debut tour of North America (1839–1843), the Austrian Rainer Family familiarized audiences with Tyrolese folk songs and Alpine yodels of triadic vocal passages yodeled in harmony to such vocables as “yo-hol-di-o-u-ri-a.” Their success led not only to yodeling craze in the 1840s in which ensembles from Austria and Switzerland toured North America but also to the development of US singing families who imitated Alpine yodeling, notably the Hutchinson Family.

Given the popularity of yodeling ensembles in the 1840s, the popular stage adopted the yodel as a vocal burlesque in portrayals of racialized and ethnic others. The Christy Minstrels and Rainer’s Original Ethiopian Serenaders included parodies of Alpine yodeling in their blackface skits. In turn, a series of plays, the first of which was The Adventures of Fritz, Our Cousin-German (...

Article

Article

Carolyn Livingston

An organization that provides concerts and other musical resources to children. Young Audiences was founded after a children’s concert and discussion by yehudi Menuhin at the home of Nina P. Collier in Baltimore in 1950. The program spread to other cities. Funding comes from the National Endowment for the Arts and other donors....

Article

Louis Niebur

[Chris ]

(b Red Bank, NJ, 28 April 1957). American film, television, and video-game composer. Young graduated from Hampshire College, Massachusetts, with the bachelor’s degree in music, followed by graduate work at North Texas State University. In 1980 he moved to Los Angeles and attended the UCLA Department of Motion Pictures, Television, and Radio, where he studied film scoring under David Raksin. Here he scored his first film, The Dorm that Dripped Blood (1982), a student film that was picked up for distribution during the slasher-movie craze of the early 1980s. After this success, he built his early reputation on horror and science fiction, with scores for such successful films as Hellraiser (1987) and Species (1995). Young showed his range during these early years with comedies (The Man who Knew too Little, 1997) and drama (Bat*21, 1988). His television work, although not prolific, has been acclaimed, and includes two Emmy-nominated projects, ...

Article

Peter Ward Jones

(b ?London, c1672; d London, c1732). English music printer, publisher and instrument maker . The researches of Dawe, together with those of Ashbee, have helped clarify the identification of members of this family. Young's father was also John, but since he was still alive in 1693, he was evidently not, as earlier surmised, the John Young who was appointed musician-in-ordinary to the king as a viol player on 23 May 1673 and who had died by 1680 (according to the Lord Chamberlain's records). Young junior was apprenticed to the music seller and publisher John Clarke, and was established on his own by 1695. His publications included A Choice Collection of Ayres for the Harpsichord or Spinett by Blow and others (1700), William Gorton's A Choice Collection of New Ayres, Compos'd and Contriv'd for Two Bass-Viols (1701), The Flute-Master Compleat Improv'd (1706), the fifth and sixth editions of Christopher Simpson's ...