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American organization founded in New York in 1974, a successor to the Mailamm (active 1931–9), the Jewish Music Forum (1939–63), and the Jewish Liturgical Music Society of America (1963–74). Membership includes libraries, synagogues, cantors, composers, educators, musicologists, ethnologists, historians, performers, and lay members who are active or interested in Jewish liturgical and secular music. The society maintains relationships with similar organizations throughout the world. It presents a variety of public programs each season, often with the American Jewish Historical Society, its host at the Center for Jewish History. The organization publishes scholarly works relevant to Jewish music, notably the multilingual journal Musica judaica (since 1975). It also sponsors the Jewish Music Forum, which hosts academic seminars, events, and forums to promote awareness and dialogue about Jewish music. It awards prizes for new Jewish works and schedules to have them performed. Albert Weisser served as its first president....

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[ASTA]

National professional organization for string music education. ASTA was founded in 1946 to encourage student performance of bowed instruments; to foster study and research on the pedagogy of string playing; and to facilitate the continuing education of string teachers. It was organized partly in reaction to the proliferation of wind bands in the public schools. The association’s activities have included special study of violin pedagogy (beginning in 1966), workshops for school orchestra directors who are not string specialists (1971–), and an international workshop with the European String Teachers Association held in Exeter, Great Britain (1975). ASTA also grants annual awards to artist-teachers and for distinguished service to the string teaching profession. In addition to various monographs and bulletins, the association has published the (now quarterly) American String Teacher since 1951. Its 11,500 members are string teachers and performers from all 50 states. Its current headquarters opened in Reston, Virginia, in ...

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[ASOL]

Organization founded in 1942 to provide artistic, financial and organizational support for American orchestras. In 1999 its members included nearly 900 symphony, chamber, youth and university orchestras. In addition to offering seminars and workshops for orchestra managers, staff and volunteers, the league sponsors an Orchestra Management Fellowship Program and provides scholarships for black American student musicians. In ...

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An educational and service organization for organists and theater organ enthusiasts, founded in 1955. Its goals are to preserve and promote the organs that were originally designed to accompany silent movies in the motion picture palaces of the 1920s. In addition, the society works to preserve, restore, maintain, and promote the theater pipe organ in places ranging from original motion picture palaces to skating rinks, schools, colleges and universities, pizza restaurants, and even private homes. To encourage young musicians to become proficient theater organists the ATOS sponsors an annual Young Organist Competition as well as annual scholarships for aspiring young organ students. The society has more than 3500 members in approximately 75 chapters across the United States, Great Britain, and Australia. The organization and the various chapters sponsor an annual convention, concerts, screening of silent films, and educational and technical programs (including a youth camp for young organists), and publish a bimonthly journal, ...

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Paul C. Echols

An American interdenominational Protestant organization devoted to the publication and distribution of religious literature. It was founded in Massachusetts in 1814 by Ebenezer Porter, a Congregational minister, and adopted the name American Tract Society in 1823. In 1825 it merged with a similar group, the New York Religious Tract Society, and the resulting national organization operated for many years from headquarters in New York. In 1978, the society relocated to Garland, Texas. The society was especially influential during the 30 years before the Civil War, after which newer religious agencies became more active. In addition to publishing millions of copies of tracts, the society issued a number of hymn and tune collections, aiming for the broadest possible circulation among middle- and working-class families. These collections became progressively less Calvinist and more evangelical in outlook, and they provide an interesting and useful record of changing tastes in American hymnody, their contents ranging from traditional 18th-century melodies through hymn tunes of the Mason–Hastings reform movement and popular sacred songs in the style of Bradbury and the Methodist revivalists to early gospel hymns. The society’s most important publications were ...

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Sarah Adams

Archives and manuscripts constitute the “raw materials” of music history, since the foundation of much humanistic scholarship is based on the interpretation and re-interpretation of primary and secondary sources. Music archival collections and manuscripts may be found both within and outside musical organizations, such as conservatories, academic institutions, libraries, historical societies, museums, businesses, performing arts organizations, research centers, radio and television stations, government archives, and church archives.

This article will cover the single manuscript and paper-based archival traditions in the USA. For media-based archives, see Archives, sound recording and moving image. For details of specific collections see Libraries and collections; for jazz archives see Libraries and archives in GroveJ.

Archives are defined as groups of documents produced by an institution, an organization, an individual, or a family in the course of daily activity, and preserved for enduring value. They are typically kept together as organized bodies of records and are maintained in their original order. The term archive also refers to the repository where archives are located; it is often also used to describe a specialized collection....

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Michael Mauskapf

[AE]

Nonprofit organization dedicated to educating, promoting, and supporting emerging leaders by exploring the intersection between the arts and business to promote social growth and entrepreneurial thinking. The organization was founded in 2006 at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, by an interdisciplinary team of students and faculty, including Chris Genteel, Kelly Dylla, Nathaniel Zeisler, and Mark Clague. Operating first as a student group, AE soon expanded to other colleges and universities, including Bowling Green State University, University of Wisconsin, University of Missouri at Kansas City, University of Iowa, and Claremont Graduate University. Chapters operate independently, advocating on behalf of AE’s mission while engaging the broader student body through skills-based workshops, performances, consulting projects, and service programs. To account for the movement’s continued growth, a national support organization was formed in 2008 to offer professional development resources and empower student leadership through action-based learning. Since 2009 Arts Enterprise has produced an annual summit, which includes keynote addresses from industry leaders and a case competition for new student businesses....

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British institution which conducts examinations in practical and theoretical musical subjects; it is also a significant publisher of music and related pedagogical materials. The Associated Board is a London-based charitable company, established in 1889 by the Royal Academy of Music and the Royal College of Music, later joined by the other two ‘royal’ conservatories, the Royal Northern College of Music (Manchester) and the Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama (Glasgow). A.C. Mackenzie, the then Principal of the Royal Academy, provided a colourful account of the circumstances surrounding the foundation of the Associated Board in A Musician’s Narrative (London, 1927). Its central activity is the provision of a scheme of graded practical examinations for instrumentalists and singers: candidates at each of the eight ascending levels of difficulty must perform set pieces, play scales and arpeggios and pass sight-reading and aural tests. The examinations are held at local centres in Britain and in about 85 other countries, with a high proportion of overseas candidates living in the countries of the Commonwealth, especially New Zealand, South Africa, Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore. During the late 1990s about 570,000 candidates were examined annually, 350,000 of these in Britain. The assessments are administered by a pool of about 530 touring examiners, almost all of whom are based in Britain. They are subject to regular compulsory training and elaborate moderation procedures....

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Sara Velez

revised by Tim Brooks

[ARSC]

US-based organization, founded in 1966 to promote the preservation and study of historical recordings in all areas of music and the spoken word. ARSC is unusual among scholarly organizations in that it brings together private collectors and scholars interested in using historical sound materials with professional archivists and libraries charged with preserving those materials. Its membership is drawn about equally from the user and holder groups, represents 23 countries, and numbers approximately 1000. The association has local chapters and holds an annual national conference that provides a forum for presentations and panel discussions in all aspects of recorded sound research. ARSC also publishes a biannual journal which includes major research articles, technical developments, discographies, record and book reviews, and bibliographies; a newsletter which contains information about member activities, meetings and events; and a membership directory, which lists all ARSC members, their collecting interests and research projects. Among its major projects have been ...

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Raoul F. Camus

(ACB)

American professional organization designed to serve the particular interests of adult band musicians, rather than those of school or college groups. Founded in 1977, its purpose is to encourage and foster adult concert community, municipal, and civic bands and to promote the performance of the highest quality traditional and contemporary literature for band. It holds annual conventions where directors, band members, managers, industry leaders, administrators, and board members assemble to exchange personal views, share experiences, and benefit from educational seminars and musical performances. The ...

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