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An educational and service organization for organists and theater organ enthusiasts, founded in 1955. Its goals are to preserve and promote the organs that were originally designed to accompany silent movies in the motion picture palaces of the 1920s. In addition, the society works to preserve, restore, maintain, and promote the theater pipe organ in places ranging from original motion picture palaces to skating rinks, schools, colleges and universities, pizza restaurants, and even private homes. To encourage young musicians to become proficient theater organists the ATOS sponsors an annual Young Organist Competition as well as annual scholarships for aspiring young organ students. The society has more than 3500 members in approximately 75 chapters across the United States, Great Britain, and Australia. The organization and the various chapters sponsor an annual convention, concerts, screening of silent films, and educational and technical programs (including a youth camp for young organists), and publish a bimonthly journal, ...

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Paul C. Echols

An American interdenominational Protestant organization devoted to the publication and distribution of religious literature. It was founded in Massachusetts in 1814 by Ebenezer Porter, a Congregational minister, and adopted the name American Tract Society in 1823. In 1825 it merged with a similar group, the New York Religious Tract Society, and the resulting national organization operated for many years from headquarters in New York. In 1978, the society relocated to Garland, Texas. The society was especially influential during the 30 years before the Civil War, after which newer religious agencies became more active. In addition to publishing millions of copies of tracts, the society issued a number of hymn and tune collections, aiming for the broadest possible circulation among middle- and working-class families. These collections became progressively less Calvinist and more evangelical in outlook, and they provide an interesting and useful record of changing tastes in American hymnody, their contents ranging from traditional 18th-century melodies through hymn tunes of the Mason–Hastings reform movement and popular sacred songs in the style of Bradbury and the Methodist revivalists to early gospel hymns. The society’s most important publications were ...

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Lori Burns and Jada Watson

[Myra Ellen]

(b Newton, NC, Aug 22, 1963). American alternative-rock singer-songwriter, pianist, and record producer. She emerged in the early 1990s amid a resurgence of female singer-songwriters and has been one of the few well known alternative-rock artists to use the piano as her primary instrument. She attended the preparatory division of the prestigious Peabody Conservatory but left the school at the age of 11. She began to play her own music in nightclubs at 14, chaperoned by her father, who was a preacher. After Amos moved to Los Angeles in her late teens to pursue a recording career, her band Y Kant Tori Read released a self-titled album (Atl., 1987). Although this was unsuccessful, Atlantic Records retained her six-album contract.

Amos’s debut solo album, Little Earthquakes (Atl., 1992), earned her critical acclaim for her vocal expressivity, pianistic virtuosity, and fearless exploration of a wide range of personal themes, notably female sexuality, personal relationships, religion, sexual violence, and coming of age. The album ...

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Jeremy Drake

French firm of music publishers. It was founded in 1943 in Grenoble by Hervé Dugardin (1910–69). At first Dugardin published works of composers whom he knew (Arrieu, Pierre Auclert, Barraud, Daniel-Lesur, Mihalovici, Sauguet and Wissmer). In 1946 the firm was transferred to Paris, and a shop was opened in the Théâtre des Champs-Elysées. In the early 1950s Dugardin published some highly significant contemporary works including Boulez's First Piano Sonata (1951) and his Sonatine for flute and piano (1954), as well as Dutilleux's First Symphony (1954). In the 1960s Amphion published works by Ohana and Marius Constant. After Dugardin's death, Isabelle Berthou, the current director, took over, and in the course of the 1960s and 70s added several notable younger composers to the catalogue including Aperghis, André Bon, Antoine Bonnet, Fenelon, Thierry Lancino, Mâche, Manoury and Risset, alongside Amy, Eloy and Tona Scherchen-Hsiao. In ...

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Nicholas Anderson

Dutch period-instrument orchestra. Founded by Ton Koopman in 1979, it has toured widely and has made numerous recordings, notably of music by Bach (including a complete cycle of cantatas), Handel and Mozart. Koopman performs regularly with the orchestra both as conductor and as harpsichordist and organist. Under his directorship it has acquired a reputation for lively, warm-toned, stylistically distinctive playing....

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Elizabeth A. Clendinning

An amusement park is a commercially-operated, outdoor venue that offers games, rides, and other types of entertainment, including music. The amusement park concept originated in the pleasure gardens of 17th-century Europe, which were originally large landscaped outdoor spaces primary devoted to games with a few refreshment stands. Dances and social and instrumental concerts became commonly integrated into these pleasure gardens in the 18th century. (See Pleasure garden.) Another important part of early amusement park soundscapes was the mechanical organ, which was used by street performers as early as the 18th century and was frequently built into carousel rides by the end of the 19th century. Over the course of the 19th century, the popularity of amusement parks skyrocketed, especially in the United States, where large tracts of land were available for development. Bandstands and pavilions devoted explicitly to musical performances were common in the 19th century, in part influenced by the popular World’s Fairs, which were industrial and cultural expositions that featured specific stages devoted to performers from around the world. A change came with the ...

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Andrew Flory

American record company. In 1973, Neil Bogart, Cecil Holmes, Larry Harris, and Buck Reingold founded Casablanca, an independent label based in Los Angeles that specialized in rock, funk, and disco. With Bogart as figurehead, the company released music by some of the most important and successful artists of the 1970s, including the theatrical rock-band Kiss, best-selling disco artist Donna Summer, gay icons the Village People and Cher, and funk acts Parliament and Chic. The producer Giorgio Moroder, known for his extended disco arrangements, was associated closely with Casablanca during the latter half of the 1970s. After the company’s acquisition by Polygram in ...

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Andover  

Barbara Owen

American firm of organ builders. It was founded in 1955 by Thomas W. Byers and Charles Brenton Fisk in North Andover, Massachusetts. It moved shortly afterwards to Methuen, Massachusetts, and in 1961 to Gloucester, Massachusetts, being renamed C.B. Fisk, Inc. A new Andover Organ Co. was formed in Methuen by two former employees, Leo Constantineau (b Lawrence, MA, 1 Nov 1924; d North Andover, MA, 1 Feb 1979) and Robert J. Reich (b Urbana, IL, 15 Dec 1929). Beginning modestly with rebuilding and restoration work, the firm soon began attracting contracts for new organs such as that for St John’s Lutheran Church, Northfield, Minnesota (1965). This organ, like several subsequent instruments, was designed by Constantineau and voiced and finished by Reich. In this same period a small continuo positive was designed, several examples of which have been built. The firm later became a multiple partnership with Robert Reich as president, Donald Olson as vice-president, and Donald Reich as treasurer. In ...

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Angel  

David Mermelstein

American record company. It was created by EMI in 1953 to distribute its English Columbia label in the United States. Under the astute leadership of Dario Sario in New York, and with the full support of the powerful producer Walter Legge, the firm quickly established a reputation for excellent recorded sound and high standards of album packaging. The label augmented its catalogue with material from Pathé Marconi and Electrola, and in 1957 it acquired the HMV catalogue for North America, consolidating its vital position within EMI's international network. Later that year Angel moved its operations to Los Angeles, affiliating with Capitol Records, in which EMI had gained a controlling interest two years earlier. Angel expanded during the 1960s under the direction of Brown Meggs, acquiring Capitol's classical catalogue, distributing numerous Russian recordings under the Melodiya/Angel banner and (in 1966) introducing Seraphim, a low-priced reissue label. Angel also established its own contracts with artists, including André Watts, Christopher Parkening and Nadja Salerno-Sonnenberg. In ...

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Roxanne R. Reed

Gospel ensemble. The Angelic Gospel Singers, or the Angelics, were an African American female gospel quartet based in Philadelphia. Founder, lead singer, and pianist Margaret Allison (1921–2008) a native of McCormick, South Carolina, moved with her family to Philadelphia as a youth. Allison joined the Spiritual Echoes in 1942 and learned vocal arranging, composition, and accompanying techniques. Allison’s family was affiliated with the Pentecostal Church, but stylistically her gospel sound was closer to that of the southern Baptist church and gospel tradition. Allison left the Spiritual Echoes in 1944 to form the Angelics. Joining her were fellow former Spiritual Echoes members Lucille Shird and Ella Mae Norris. The third member was Allison’s sister Josephine MacDowell. The quartet’s sound mimicked that of popular male quartets such as the Fairfield Four and the Dixie Hummingbirds with controlled harmonies and simple accompaniment. The Angelic Gospel Singers commonly performed with the Hummingbirds. As a group, the Angelics performed primarily on the Pentecostal Church circuit. Their rendition of Lucie Campbell’s “Touch Me, Lord Jesus” (...

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Richard J. Agee

In 

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Joanne Sheehy Hoover

Brass quintet. The group was founded in 1971 and disbanded in 1993. David Cran (trumpet) and Robert Posten (bass trombone) remained with the group for the duration through various personnel changes. It was the first American brass quintet to serve as the full-time and exclusive professional occupation of its members. The group toured extensively in the United States (New York debut, 21 January 1984), Canada, Europe, and Asia; they also became mainstays at music festivals and music camps worldwide. The group played a major role in developing brass quintet literature through editions of Renaissance and Baroque music and an active commissioning program; it gave over 75 premieres, including works by George Walker, Robert Starer, Lawrence Moss, and Jiri LaBurda. In 1979 the ensemble organized the Brass Chamber Music Society of Annapolis, and in 1980 it established the International Brass Quintet Festival in Baltimore, to bring together professionals from both Europe and the United States with student ensembles for brass performance and study....

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Anna E. Kijas

A cappella vocal quartet, based in New York. The quartet has been a resident ensemble at St. Michael’s Episcopal Church in New York City since its formation in 1986. The founding members include New York natives, Johanna Marie Rose, Susan Hellauer, Marsha Genensky, and Ruth Cunningham. In 1998, Cunningham left the group and was replaced by Jacqueline Horner-Kwaitek, a native of Northern Ireland. Although the group announced its retirement as a full-time group in 2005, with the return of Cunningham (replacing Rose) in 2007, it continues to record and tour.

The group’s name is borrowed from the most important of the unsigned 13th-century treatises on music. This treatise describes the compositional styles and practices at the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris in the early part of the 13th century, and attributes works to master composers, Leoninus and Perotinus of the Notre Dame School. Upon formation, the group’s repertoire consisted of sacred and secular polyphonic music of the 11th to 14th centuries. Over the years it has expanded to include Renaissance music, which they often perform with the six-man vocal ensemble Lionheart; contemporary music; traditional music from the British Isles; and, more recently, American shape-note tunes, gospel songs, and folk songs....

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Hans Klotz, Umberto Pineschi and Lorenzo Ghielmi

Italian family of organ builders, composers and musicians. They were active from the last decades of the 15th century to the second half of the 17th. A Lorenzo Antegnati and his son Giovanni, a lawyer, established themselves in Brescia, coming from Lodi, assuming citizenship on 17 February 1431.

Hans Klotz and Umberto Pineschi

Giovanni’s son Bartolomeo (d 1501, called ‘magister Bartholomeus de Lumesanis’ probably because he had his shop in Lumezzane) was the first organ builder of the family, and was organist at Brescia Cathedral. He worked on organs at S Maria Maggiore and S Pietro de Dom, Brescia (1484), Milan Cathedral (the small organ, 1489–91); S Maria Maggiore, Bergamo (1496–8); S Lorenzo Maggiore, Milan (1498), and Albino, near Bergamo (1501).

Bartolomeo’s son Gian Battista (b 1490; d before 1560) was a highly regarded organist, while Gian Giacomo (...

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