121-140 of 141 results  for:

  • Performance Practice x
Clear all

Article

Sarah Maria Sargent

As applied to keyboard instruments, a term used to refer to the manner of depressing and releasing the keys. Touch is produced by the motion of the finger, the speed and position of the hand and the use or omission of arm weight. Kullak (1855) stated that touch is the art of producing sound on a keyboard instrument, not just beautifully but correctly according to context, including the demands of the particular instrument.

The clavichord is the only keyboard instrument where the player’s fingers have direct control over tone quality because the tangents remain in contact with the strings while they are sounding; the player is accountable for the note not only at the outset but for its entire duration (Troeger, 1987). After the key is struck, the performer can increase or decrease the pressure on the key to alter the pitch or to add portamento or vibrato (...

Article

Article

Article

Edwin M. Ripin

revised by John Koster

One that enables the performer readily to play music in a different key from that in which it is written, generally for the purpose of enabling the music to sound at a different pitch (usually to accommodate a keyboard accompaniment to the fixed or preferred pitch of other instruments or singers) or to permit the playing of music in a ‘difficult’ key while using the fingering of an ‘easy’ key. There are two principal ways in which this may be accomplished. In one, the keyboard simply slides sideways relative to the jacks, hammers, stickers, strings etc. of the instrument of which it is a part. In the other method, there are two keyboards which are displaced from each other by a certain fixed interval.

The latter method is known principally from the standard two-manual harpsichords made by the Ruckers family in the late 16th-century and the first half of the 17th. In these, the upper keyboard sounds at normal pitch, while the lower keyboard, which plays the same strings as the upper keyboard, is positioned so that it sounds a fourth lower. The lower-manual ...

Article

Tremble  

Article

Article

Article

Article

Barbara Owen

(Fr. Tremblant; It. Tremolo; Sp. Temblor)

An important accessory stop found in organs of all sizes since the early 16th century, although it is not always mentioned in early contracts, and is sometimes referred to by other names (e.g. ‘shaking stop’ in Tudor England). By slightly disturbing the wind supply, it causes an undulating or tremolando effect in the music, somewhat like a vocal vibrato. Two types were known to 17th and 18th century organ builders, and it is not known which is of the greater antiquity. The external tremulant (tremblant fort, tremblant à vent perdu, Bocktremulant; see fig.1a) consists of a balanced and adjustable sprung valve which allows intermittent pulses of wind to escape. The internal tremulant (tremblant doux, Schwebung; see fig.1b) consists of a sprung and weighted flap or gate within a wind-trunk, which momentarily interrupts the flow of wind to the chest. Unlike the external tremulant, the internal type is affected by the flow of wind, and behaves differently when a large or small number of stops is drawn. When not in use, the plate of the internal tremulant is pushed up against the side of the wind-trunk, and the bellows of the external tremulant is fixed in a closed position. As the names imply, the external tremulant produced a stronger and less subtle effect than the internal type....

Article

Triller  

Article

Article

Trinado  

Article

Trino  

Article

James Blades

revised by James Holland

[chimes, orchestral chimes] (Fr. cloches; Ger. Glocken, Röhrenglocken; It. campane, campanelle)

A set of tuned metal tubes (classified as an idiophone: set of percussion tubes). They are used for bell effects in the orchestra and on the operatic stage, real bells being cumbersome, heavy and difficult to play with rhythmic precision. Tubular bells consist of a series of brass or steel tubes ranging in diameter from about 3 to 7 cm; the greater the diameter, the longer the bell tube. The compass of the standard set of tubular bells is c′ to f″ or g″. Two-octave sets (f–f″org″) are used in continental Europe and Kolberg has produced a three-octave set (c–c‴). The tubes hang in a frame mounted in two rows, keyboard-fashion. They are struck at the top edge, which is capped or reinforced with an inner metal disc or pin. For general purposes a rawhide or plastic mallet is employed, one side usually covered with leather or felt for a contrast in tone. The bells are damped by a foot-pedal mechanism. To play one of the larger instruments, with some tubes 3 metres or more in length, the player stands on a platform; a music stand is incorporated above the instrument....

Article

Douglas Leedy

revised by Charles Corey

Systems of organization of the pitch scale. Such systems are either “just” or “tempered.” Just systems consist entirely of pure intervals, and though literal transposition of patterns or scales may be very limited, other musically useful symmetries are available. Tempered systems are those in which the purity of some or all intervals is deliberately compromised in order to render other intervals less impure, and thus increase the number of musically serviceable intervals. Over the course of centuries countless tunings and temperaments have been proposed, but few have been of practical importance; of these, 12-tone equal temperament has become the standard in Western music since the 19th century.

Until about 1850 many organs in New England were tuned to some practical variant of meantone temperament, while in areas of German influence (such as the Moravian communities) equal temperament prevailed. The universal acceptance of 12-tone equal temperament as standard from the mid-19th century nearly silenced discussion of alternative systems; only a few isolated composers and theorists advocated or experimented with non-standard tuning systems before about ...

Article

Turn  

Article

Tut  

Article

J. Richard Haefer

Five-stringed small guitar of Mexico. Commonly known as the vihuela, it is played in the mariachi ensemble as a harmony and rhythm instrument, and should not be confused with the Spanish vihuela de mano. It has a loud, crisp, rapid-decay sound. The soundbox is typically 39 cm long with a 29 cm maximum width, a 28 cm neck with four to six movable nylon frets, and 50 cm string length. The maximum depth of the sides is 10.5 cm plus an additional 6 cm depth to the apex of the vaulted, angled back. Wooden pegs inserted from the rear of the pegboard are traditional but nowadays most vihuelas have mechanical tuners. The tuning is a-d′-g′-b-e′ but sometimes the lowest three strings are tuned an octave higher. The soundhole (boca) is surrounded by nácar (mother of pearl) and wood inlay in a starburst pattern, and the purfling has intricate ...

Article

(It.: ‘chest voice’; Fr. voix de poitrine)

One of the two primary registers of the singing voice. The voice resonating from the chest is lower in pitch and bigger and darker in sound than that resonating from the head (see Voce di testa). Beginning in the 18th century, singing tutors discussed these registers at length, taking various positions on how to unite the break (...

Article