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Article

Miriam Miller

(b Dunwich, Suffolk, 1522; d Walden, Essex, July 23, 1584). English printer, father of Richard Day. He was one of the most successful general printers of his generation, but his music printing was almost entirely limited to two works: Certaine Notes set forth in Foure and Three Parts and The Whole Booke of Psalmes, Collected into English Metre by T. Sternhold, I. Hopkins & Others … with Apt Notes to Synge them withal, known as the Sternhold-Hopkins psalter. Certaine Notes was probably compiled before 1553 and partially printed in 1560, but it was not until 1565 that the whole anthology was completely issued, under the amended title Mornyng and Evenyng Prayer. Day first published The Whole Booke of Psalmes in 1562, under the terms of a monopoly granted to him by the crown in 1559 that gave him sole right to print the work, which became extremely popular. He had the patent of monopoly renewed in ...

Article

Miriam Miller

(b London, Dec 21, 1552; d before 1607). English music publisher, son of John Day. He was trained as a scholar, becoming a Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge, in 1574. Family pressures obliged him to return to his father’s business in London, and he was admitted to the Stationers’ Company in 1577. With his father he held several printing monopolies, including one that gave them sole right to print the Sternhold-Hopkins psalter, in which the metrical psalms were set to music. After his father’s death in 1584, Day never printed this work himself but assigned his rights to other printers; he authorized 46 separate printings, bringing the total printed under the monopoly to 82. The work was continually pirated and Day was involved in several legal actions. When Thomas Morley acquired a general music-printing monopoly from the queen in 1598, the terms conflicted with Day’s. Morley published Richard Allison’s ...

Article

Marie Cornaz

(b Lille, June 8, 1731; d Brussels, July 30, 1804). French bookseller, printer and type founder, active in the southern Netherlands. Born into a family of printers, he was the son of Henri de Boubers and Marie Catherine Gavroy. He married Marie-Thérèse Joseph Panckoucke, a sister of the French bookseller Charles-Joseph Panckoucke, and later married Marie-Thérèse Joseph d'Audenarde. A bookseller in Dunkirk by about 1747, then a printer-bookseller in Liège from 1761, he established himself in Brussels in 1768 after two years of apprenticeship with Jean-Joseph Boucherie. On 18 October 1769 he opened the first permanent bookshop in the Théâtre de la Monnaie selling librettos of lyric works, some with music. De Boubers was also a type founder, at first in partnership with Mathias Rosart, son of the printer Jacques-François Rosart. He produced new printing type in 1779 which he sold to numerous printers in the Netherlands as well as to individuals, including the Prince de Ligne. De Boubers edited some occasional pieces, two of which were published for the inauguration of Charles de Lorraine's statue in Brussels in ...

Article

Susan Bain

[Latius, Joannes; Latio, Giovanni]

(b Stabroeck, c1525; d Antwerp, 1566). Flemish printer. He became a citizen of Antwerp in 1545 and began to print in the same year; he served as one of the Town Printers from 1549 to 1566, being regularly mentioned in the Antwerp accounts. He printed more than 100 books reflecting the cosmopolitan life of Antwerp, including Flemish Bibles, law books, histories, classical texts, Spanish books and a dozen books by English Catholic authors. From 1554 he published a number of music books, either with the Antwerp teacher and composer Hubert Waelrant, who acted as the music editor, or on his own. Together, in the years 1554–6, Waelrant and De Laet published eight books of motets and four books of chansons by various composers. Alone, De Laet brought out a number of music publications including Lassus’s motets in 1556, the year of the composer’s visit to Antwerp; thus he was one of Lassus’s first publishers. De Laet also printed two editions of ...

Article

Stefano Ajani

Italian firm of music publishers. Pietro Giovanni De Santis (b Isola Liri, 1822; d Rome, 1914) founded the firm in Rome on returning from exile in 1852, and began by alternating publishing (harp music) with the manufacture and sale of string instruments and pianos, activities in which he had specialized with the renowned Alessandroni at the Istituto Romano di S Michele. His son Alberto (b Rome, 1876; d Rome, 1968), associated with the firm from 1902, enlarged the publishing programme with works by contemporary composers, including Giacomo Setaccioli, P.A. Tirindelli, Alessandro Bustini and Giovanni Tebaldini.

Renato De Santis (b Rome, 1901; d Rome, 1974) began to take part in the business in 1916 and directed the firm until his death. Under him the firm expanded the educational and musicological sections with specialized and collected editions as well as numerous instrumental, orchestral and vocal compositions. His friendship with musicians such as Malipiero, Alfredo Casella, Poulenc, Respighi, Rieti, Toscanini, Mascagni, Puccini, Cilea, Giordano, Pizzetti and Alfano led him to an interest in the new avant garde; his catalogue, besides works by some of those composers, also includes works by Porrino, Allegra, Mannino, Liviabella, Lupi, Pizzini, Turchi and Savagnone. However, the firm’s most important activity has been in publishing new editions of works by earlier composers. Under the artistic direction first of Bonaventura Somma and then of Lino Bianchi, De Santis published Capolavori Polifonici del Secolo XVI and Polifonia Vocale Sacra e Profana: Sec.XVI. The firm also published the 42-volume Musiche Vocali e Strumentali Sacre e Profane sec. XVII–XVIII–XIX secolo, the complete keyboard works of Bernardo Pasquini, Galuppi and G.M. Rutini, and a number of important series of early music, including Gli Oratori di Alessandro Scarlatti, Musiche rinascimentali siciliane, Polifonia Napoletana del Rinascimento, Musiche per Sonare con Ogni Sorte di Stromenti and Composizioni Vocali e Strumentali dal XIV al XVI secolo; De Santis also publishes Contributi di Musicologia....

Article

Daniel Zager

Dealers (also referred to as vendors) are the business entities that sell books, periodicals, scores, audio and video recordings, and antiquarian materials (both printed and manuscript) to libraries and individuals. This article focuses on the services that dealers in music scores and recordings provide to music libraries; consideration of general book dealers and periodical subscription agents is omitted in this context. Selected American music and media dealers as well as music antiquarian dealers active during the second half of the 20th century and the 21st century are profiled briefly.

Music dealers must be distinguished from music publishers and from music retail stores. Dealers provide the printed and recorded products of numerous publishers, thus obviating the need for librarians to establish business relationships directly with a broad spectrum of individual publishers. Some music dealers do edit and publish scores and books, even as they simultaneously offer materials from other publishers to libraries. While retail stores maintain stock for individual customers to browse, dealers typically do not maintain an extensive stock, instead purchasing items from publishers as needed to fulfill orders from libraries....

Article

Alyssa Woods

Record label. Death Row Records was formed in 1991 by former football star Marion “Suge” Knight and rapper/producer Dre (Andre Romelle Young) in Los Angeles, California. The label’s first release was Dr. Dre’s The Chronic in 1992, a groundbreaking album that paired explicit and often violent lyrics with commercial beats that were based on older soul, funk, and R&B songs. The musical style of The Chronic became known as “G-Funk” (Gangsta-funk), a style that dominated many of Death Row’s early albums as well as most West Coast gangsta rap throughout the 1990s.

Death Row achieved immense success within a few years, partly due to aggressive marketing to mainstream audiences, and partly due to a successful distribution deal with Interscope. Death Row Records became a target of the controversy within the gangsta rap industry due to the constant legal problems of Suge Knight and many of the artists signed to the label (for example Snoop Dogg, and later Tupac Shakur). As a consequence of public debates surrounding gangsta rap’s promotion of violence and drugs, Interscope’s parent company, Time-Warner, eventually dropped Interscope as a distributor in an effort to distance themselves from Death Row....

Article

Decca  

Maureen Fortey

British record company. The name dates from 1914, when it was used for the first portable gramophone to be manufactured, produced by Barnett Samuel & Sons of Finsbury, London. That firm had originally been founded in Westminster in 1832, by Henry Solomon, whose trade included the distribution of musical instruments; the music side of the business had been taken over by Barnett Samuel in 1860–61, who by the beginning of the 20th century traded in records and ‘talking machines’ as well as instruments and by 1912 was also manufacturing records on the Odeon, Fonotipia and Jumbo labels. After World War I the company concentrated on gramophones and instruments. In 1928, when the Samuel family retired from the business, the Decca Gramophone Company Ltd was founded; its shares were bought the next year by the Decca Record Company Ltd, which also bought the record factory at New Malden, south-west of London, of the Duophone company....

Article

Def Jam  

Alyssa Woods

American record label. Def Jam started as a small independent record company, run out of producer rick Rubin ’s New York University dorm room. Soon after its inception, in 1984, entrepreneur russell Simmons joined Rubin and brought the label into the mainstream. While Rubin had great musical vision and production skills, Simmons was already well established as a promoter and managed to bring numerous rappers to the label from his preexisting management company, Rush Entertainment. Def Jam was known throughout the mid-1980s for hard, aggressive, rock-influenced rap songs, exemplified in releases from LL Cool J, the Beastie Boys, Run-D.M.C., and Public Enemy. Def Jam was the first independent rap label to sign with a major distributor when they made an unprecedented one million dollar deal with Columbia Records/Sony in 1985.

Def Jam is largely responsible for making rap accessible to a wider audience during the mid-1980s, profoundly reorienting the trajectory of mainstream popular music. A major factor in their success was their bridging of musical tastes between black and white audiences. Def Jam was also instrumental in selling the ghetto image associated with rap to mainstream audiences through careful branding and aggressive marketing and promotion. Rubin was the first to leave Def Jam in ...

Article

Jared Pauley

Hip-hop record label based in Brooklyn, New York. Originally founded by former Company Flow member El-P (Jaime Meline) and his manager Amechi Uzoigwe, the record label played a major role in propagating “underground” hip hop in the 2000s.

El-P and Uzoigwe started Def Jux after New York’s famed underground hip-hop label Rawkus Records, which had released three albums by his group Company Flow, was sold to a major. In 2000, the label released a plethora of diverse material, from DJ RJD2 to underground MC Mr. Lif. In addition, Def Jux also released material from hip-hop duo Cannibal Ox, which featured production work by El-P. The label’s most fruitful period was 2000–4. During this time they released dozens of successful singles, compilations, and full length albums, effectively continuing the underground legacy of Rawkus Records. In 2001, Def Jux was sued by Def Jam Entertainment for copyright infringement due to the use of the word Def in their name; following an out-of-court settlement, the label has been officially known as Definitive Jux....

Article

Jeremy Drake

(d 1944/5). French music publisher. By acquiring the catalogues of Hachette and especially Benoît, he became the publisher of operas by Auber and Meyerbeer. These, and exclusive rights to Plaisir d’amour, enabled Deiss to publish much modern music including works by Aubert, Harsányi, Koechlin, Schmitt and, in the 1930s and 40s, Rieti, Mihalovici and Milhaud. Though opera, song and piano works formed the bulk of his catalogue, Deiss also published some symphonic and instrumental music, dance music, and music for the cinema and the music hall. Information on his life is lacking, as are precise details of his publishing house, but it is known that he was arrested by the Vichy authorities in France on account of his Jewish ancestry and sent to a German concentration camp where he was executed in ...

Article

Anne Schnoebelen

(d Oct 6, 1749). Italian music publisher and bookseller. His firm was active in Bologna for most of the 18th century and was famous in the art of typography and for the accuracy and elegance of its editions. In 1720, as head of a society of Bolognese printers, Della Volpe acquired the printing establishment of the widow of Giulio Borsaghi. His first musical publication was an enlarged edition (1720) of Angelo Bertalotti’s Regole utilissime per … il canto fermo. He issued a further enlarged edition in 1744 (reprinted 1756, 1764 and 1778). He ordered musical type characters from the Netherlands and in 1734 began his music printing activities in earnest, starting with Giovanni Battista Martini’s op.1, Litaniae atque antiphonae finales B. Virginis Mariae. Della Volpe was also active as a bookseller, handling the musical publications of the Bolognese printers P.M. Monti and G.A. Silvani. In ...

Article

David Sanjek

[James Rae ]

(b Buffalo Valley, TN, Feb 28, 1911; d Nashville, TN, Aug 27, 1963). American country music agent, publisher, and Grand Ole Opry manager. One of the most influential and powerful figures in the country music business, Jim Denny followed the path of the classic American success story. He left his home in Buffalo Valley, Tennessee, at age 16 with purportedly no more than 40 cents in his pocket. He moved to Nashville and joined the mailroom staff at WSM radio (home of the Grand Ole Opry). He completed his college degree by mail and worked his way up the corporate ladder, becoming the manager of concessions at the Opry during World War II. In 1951 Denny was promoted to manager of the Opry, an appointment that granted him to programming privileges and thus put him in the position to make or break performers’ careers. Additionally, he headed the ...

Article

Denon  

Sachio Moroishi

Japanese record label of Nippon Columbia Kabushiki Kaisha. The firm's forerunner, Nippon Chikuonki Shōkai (Japan Phonograph Company), was established in 1910 by the American entrepreneur Frederick Whitney Horne. The company immediately undertook a recording programme, becoming one of the first Japanese companies to do so, and produced records by the soprano Miura Tamaki among others. In 1927 it became affiliated to the British Columbia Company, and it changed its name to Nippon Columbia Chikuonki Kabushiki Kaisha the following year. In addition to marketing a large number of Columbia recordings, the company won popularity with recordings by the tenor Yoshie Fujiwara.

Foreign management of the company came to an end in 1935, after which it was administered with Japanese capital, and in 1946 its trading name was changed to Nippon Columbia Kabushiki Kaisha. From 1948 the company distributed recordings from American Columbia (the relationship with American CBS continued until 1968, and that with the British Columbia Company until ...

Article

José López-Calo

Spanish music publishing and research institute active in Madrid and Barcelona. Originally called the Instituto Español de Musicología, it was founded on the advice of Higini Anglès as a branch of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas by ministerial decree of the Spanish government (27 September 1943). In accordance with the founding decree and other constitutive rules the institute aimed to make an inventory and publish catalogues of Spanish music; to publish its source material and monographs on the history of music in Spain; to collect, edit and study popular songs of the different Spanish regions; to make a photographic archive of the most important Spanish manuscripts; and to organize musicological courses and conferences. Some of these objectives were scarcely attempted, but much important material was published, notably the series Monumentos de la Música Española, the periodical Anuario musical (from 1946), and a series of monographs and songbooks. The series of music catalogues began brilliantly in ...

Article

John A. Emerson

Belgian firm of publishers. Active in Tournai (and not to be confused with Desclée de Brouwer & Cie of Bruges), the firm was established in 1876 by Jules Desclée (1828–1911), and four years later became Desclée, Lefebvre & Cie (Lefebvre died c1907) under the corporate name Société Saint-Jean-l’Evangéliste with branches in Paris and Rome. Now a division of S.A. Gedit, it specializes in scholarly and pastoral religious publications. In the period 1880 to 1960 Desclée contributed significantly to the publication of modern Gregorian chant books under the auspices of the Congregation of Sacred Rites at the Vatican and the Benedictine Congregation of Solesmes. According to imprint data issued during the 1950s, it published over 6100 numbered editions. With the decision of the Second Vatican Council (1962–5) to replace the ancient Latin liturgical texts and melodies with vernacular substitutes, Desclée, like other publishers, abandoned the publication of notated chant books....

Article

Richard Evidon

German record company.

The company's origins are bound up in those of the recording medium itself. In June 1898, Deutsche Grammophon GmbH [DG] was formed in Hanover, with the first factory devoted solely to manufacturing gramophone records. Its directors were Emile Berliner – inventor of the record (called a ‘plate’) and the record-playing ‘gramophone’, patented in 1887 in Washington and Berlin – and his brother Joseph. Their four hydraulic presses (14 by early 1899, when full-scale operation began) were imported from the USA to produce shellac discs from zinc masters supplied by the Gramophone Company, established in London earlier that year by Emile's associate William Barry Owen. The factory also produced gramophones, again initially using American components. By 1900, 45 presses were in operation, and on 27 June the Deutsche Grammophon Gesellschaft became a joint-stock company with headquarters in Berlin. Emile Berliner, his brothers Joseph and Jacob and Orpheus Musikwerke of Leipzig owned 40% of the shares, the remaining 60% being held by the Gramophone Company. Until World War I recordings were produced by the London parent company under the supervision of Fred Gaisberg, some of them at DG's Berlin studios. In ...

Article

Hans-Martin Plesske

revised by Gunter Hempel

German firm of music publishers. It was founded as a nationally owned firm in Leipzig in 1954. Gunter Hempel became director in 1974, succeeding Helmut Zeraschi. It publishes complete critical editions, practical editions and music literature (specialized musicological works, Festschriften, yearbooks, biographies, facsimile editions, reprints and children’s books with music). An orchestral and theatrical agency is attached to the firm. The Deutscher Verlag für Musik has brought out numerous works by contemporary composers including Paul Dessau, Hanns Eisler, Siegfried Matthus, Siegfried Thiele, Karl Ottomar Treibmann and Udo Zimmermann, as well as works by Shostakovich, Prokofiev and Mikis Theodorakis. Studies, didactic works and instrumental tutors are a prominent part of its publishing programme. The firm is also responsible for the publication of the collected editions of Mendelssohn, Samuel Scheidt, Gesualdo and Eisler; with Bärenreiter it is producing the collected editions of Bach, Handel and Mozart. Experts from several countries are contributing to the firm’s series Musikgeschichte in Bildern (founded by Heinrich Besseler and Max Schneider, subsequently edited by Werner Bachmann), a standard work of musical iconography. In ...

Article

Alexander Weinmann and John Warrack

(b Mattsee, nr Salzburg, Sept 5, 1781; d Vienna, April 7, 1858). Austrian publisher and composer. He studied music in Michaelbeuren and Salzburg and in 1800 entered Raitenhaslach Abbey. After the dissolution of the Bavarian monasteries (1803) he went to Vienna, where he taught the piano and guitar, and soon became known for his arrangements and compositions (six masses by him had been published in Augsburg in 1799); many of his works were published in Vienna. His job as a proofreader for S.A. Steiner & Co. (as detailed in Beethoven’s letters) gave him an increasing interest in music publishing, and in the Wiener Zeitung (15 September 1817) he advertised a subscription for some of his sacred compositions, which were to appear from his newly established publishing house in the Schultergasse. On 29 September he moved to no.351 Am Hof. The first notice of publications (...

Article

Dial  

Edward Komara

Record company. Dial Records was founded in 1946 in Hollywood, California by Ross Russell (1909–2000) with the assistance of lawyer Marvin Freeman. It was established to record bebop jazz, with Charlie Parker as its central artist. From 1946 through 1948 it held 16 recording sessions, with Parker (with sidemen Miles Davis and Max Roach), Dizzy Gillespie, Howard McGhee, Serge Chaloff (with fellow Woody Herman bandmembers), Erroll Garner, Earl Coleman, Dexter Gordon, Wardell Gray, and Dodo Marmorosa. The 1944–5 Comet label sessions and two 1945 Melrose sessions were purchased by Dial for reissue, and additional recordings were leased from the European labels Blue Star and Vogue. Since 1970, the surviving Dial jazz recording takes have been reissued by Spotlite Records.

Russell moved Dial to New York in 1947. Two years later he accepted as a trade from Blue Star a recording of Pierre Dervaux conducting Schoenberg’s Chamber Symphony op.9. The resulting Dial Library of Contemporary Classics issued 19 LPs, presenting compositions by Schoenberg, Alban Berg, Anton Webern, Béla Bartók, Igor Stravinsky, Olivier Messiaen, André Jolivet, Cage, and Hovhaness. Another Dial series issued eight LPs of calypso music recorded in the West Indies during spring ...