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Article

Jack Sage

[chançoneta, chansoneta, canzoneta, cansoneta] (Sp.: ‘little song’)

A Spanish refrain song similar to the villancico but usually sacred. The word was derived from the French ‘chansonnette’ in the 13th or 14th century, probably through Provençal. The chanzoneta resembles the villancico in form but is more cheerful and less refined in style. Sebastián de Covarrubias Horozco (Tesoro de la lengua castellana, 1611) confirmed its resemblance to the villancico, defining both forms as Christmas carols. It is also related in form to the 16th-century Italian canzonetta. Venegas de Henestrosa published a number of chanzonetas in his Libro de cifra nueva (1557; ed. in MME, ii, 1944/R) and Francisco Guerrero referred to his Canciones y villanescas espirituales (1589; ed. in MME, xvi, xix, 1955–7) as ‘chanzonetas y villancicos’. Further examples are found in 15th-century sources such as the Cancionero de Baena, in the early 16th-century plays of Gil Vicente, in the writings of Juan Bermudo and in numerous manuscripts of the 16th and 17th centuries (in ...

Article

Maurice J.E. Brown

(Ger. Charakterstück)

A piece of music, usually for piano solo, expressing either a single mood (e.g. martial, dream-like, pastoral) or a programmatic idea defined by its title. The term is usually applied to pieces written since the early 19th century, although a number of harpsichord pieces by Couperin and Rameau and other earlier composers anticipate the genre. An early use of the term occurs in Beethoven, who called his Leonore Overture no.1 a ‘characteristic overture’, by which he must have implied that it was characteristic of operatic overtures and dramatic in style. The two marches by Schubert published posthumously as op.121 (d968 b) were called ‘marches caractéristiques’ by the publisher Diabelli, no doubt to suggest that they were characteristic of Schubert’s marches, many of which had already been published; at that time (1830) the term was still unusual. An early frequent use of the term is in the piano music of Stephen Heller. He gave titles to many pieces, sometimes of a general nature, e.g. Four Arabesques (op.49) or Three Albumleaves (op.157), and others more definite in their implications, as in ...

Article

Robin Moore

[charanga francesa]

A musical ensemble type that gained popularity in Cuba in the early twentieth century. The term charanga appears to have had negative associations in the nineteenth-century and was often used to reference any small, ad hoc musical ensemble, but has since lost its negative meanings. Twentieth-century charanga bands most often played danzón repertoire for dancers; unlike earlier nineteenth-century ensembles, however, their instrumentation consisted not of a wide variety of wind instruments but instead of a small group foregrounding flute and violins as their primary melodic instruments. The most common instrumentation of this charanga ensemble consisted of piano, acoustic bass, a transverse wooden flute similar to the flute used in Baroque classical repertoire, two or more violins, timbales, and güiro (a gourd scraper). Well known charanga bands of the early twentieth century included the orchestras of José María Romeu and Antonio Arcaño.

Beginning in the 1930s, charanga bands began to incorporate influences from the Cuban ...

Article

Pauline Norton

A lively social dance of the 1920s, said to have originated in Charleston, South Carolina, as a black American dance form. It appeared for the first time in theatrical dance in the black musical comedy Liza (1922, music by Maceo Pinkard) and achieved enormous popularity in 1923 as a dance-song by James P. Johnson and Cecil Mack (ex.1), in the black musical Runnin’ Wild and other shows. It became the symbol of the frenzied social gaiety of the ‘roaring twenties’ that came abruptly to an end with the Wall Street crash in 1929.

The movements of the charleston were based on those of other black American exhibition dances, especially the ones introduced in the black revue Shuffle Along in 1921. They included shimmying (see Shimmy), exuberant and sometimes violent kicking and arm-swinging, and slapping of parts of the body with the hands, all of which were performed in the seemingly awkward posture of a half-squat, with hunched shoulders, knees together and toes pointing inward; the effect, however, was one of grace and lighthearted abandon. As a stage dance the charleston’s movements included vigorous side kicks, flailing of the arms and swinging of the torso. During its few years of popularity about ...

Article

Richard Rastall

revised by David Klausner

One of the four principal sequences of medieval English biblical plays. The Chester cycle exists in five manuscripts dating from the period 1591–1607. All are antiquarian compilations, apparently based on the texts of a now lost mid-16th-century exemplar, perhaps the city’s official copy. A Corpus Christi play was performed in Chester at least as early as 1422, with individual pageants produced by the city guilds. In or before 1521 the play was transferred to Whitsunday, and ten years later the 25-pageant cycle was distributed over a three-day period, probably the Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday in Whitsun week, with performances at four stations. The last performance was probably at Midsummer 1575, when material offensive to Protestants was omitted.

Vocal music is required by some 30 cues. Play 2, the Drapers’ pageant of Adam and Cain, requires ‘heavenly minstrelsy’. The main purpose of this music is to represent heaven and, by extension, God’s heavenly messengers and earthly agents; but, as in some other plays, the misuse of music shows the performer to be an ungodly person. A second function of the music is structural, marking entrances, exits and the transition from one scene to another. Most of the text incipits can be identified as liturgical items, presumably intended to be sung to chant. In the latest manuscript (...

Article

Peter Downey and Edward H. Tarr

(It.: ‘call’; Fr. chamade; Sp. chamado)

A term indicating a monophonic trumpet or horn call, or a homophonous imitation of the same on other instruments, normally strings. The chiamata was apparently introduced shortly before 1600 as a prefatory piece to a newly developed series of military trumpet calls known as ‘alarm’ signals. In the course of the 17th century it came to supersede the military toccata, which had performed a similar function for an older body of military calls. The chiamata was originally a single-section piece consisting of a characteristic arpeggio figure rising from g to g′, followed by a rapid reiteration of the latter pitch (ex.1a). The form was extended before 1630: the first section was occasionally given a varied repeat; and a second section, comprising an arpeggio figure falling from c′′ to c′ before rising to a rapidly reiterated g′, was added (ex.1b). Bendinelli (Tutta l’arte della trombetta, 1614...

Article

[chiarenzana, chirinitana, giaranzana] (It.)

An Italian dance, especially of the 15th and 16th centuries. It was known as early as 1459, when one is said to have been included in a ballo performed for Pope Pius II in Florence, and choreographies for chiarentane were included in treatises by Domenico da Piacenza and Guglielmo Ebreo da Pesaro. The dance is mentioned in Gazoni’s La piazza universale di tutte le professioni (1587) in a list of such popular dances as the pavan, galliard and saltarello. John Florio’s Queen Anna’s New World of Wordis; or a Dictionarie of the Italian and English Tongues (London, 1611) defined the ‘chiarenzana’ as ‘a Kinde of Caroll or song full of leaping, like a Scottish gigge’. Fabritio Caroso included a sophisticated choreography in Il Ballarino (1581), describing something much like the English contredanse, with some individual steps taken from the pavan. Caroso noted that the chiarentana...

Article

J. Bradford Robinson

A sub-species of New Orleans jazz developed by young white musicians in the Chicago area during the mid-1920s. A number of these musicians were associated with the so-called Austin High School Gang (Jimmy McPartland, Dave Tough, Frank Teschemacher, Joe Sullivan and Bud Freeman); others, notably Benny Goodman, Gene Krupa and Muggsy Spanier, were native to Chicago, while still others, such as Eddie Condon, PeeWee Russell and Red McKenzie, moved to Chicago early in their careers. Although only intermittently active in Chicago, Bix Beiderbecke and Frankie Trumbauer are also sometimes associated with this school. At first the Chicagoans merely copied the New Orleans style of King Oliver and the New Orleans Rhythm Kings, but brought to it in some cases a superior instrumental technique (Goodman) and a more hectic and extrovert rhythmic basis (Krupa), together with a greater emphasis on solo playing. In general, however, they varied the basic features of New Orleans jazz rather than developing an independent style. With the suppression of Chicago’s speakeasy culture in the late 1920s most of these musicians moved to New York, where several of them became important figures in the swing style of the 1930s. (W.H. Kenney: ...

Article

J. Richard Haefer

[waila]

A form of acculturated popular music of the Pima and Tohono o’odham (formerly called papago) Indians of southern Arizona, which blends Anglo, Hispanic, and Indian traditions. It is called “chicken scratch” by Anglo-Americans and the Pima, and “waila” (from Sp. baile or bailar “to dance”) by the Tohono O’odham. Usually performed as an all-night social dance; the O’odham were first exposed to European music by Jesuit and Franciscan missionaries in the 18th and early 19th centuries; later, on annual pilgrimages to Magdalena, Sonora, the Tohono O’odham encountered Mexican popular music. It is probable that much of the chicken-scratch repertory was borrowed from Mexican traditions. Although the early history of chicken scratch is not well documented, a newspaper account and a description by an Anglo-American traveler confirm that it was in existence as early as the 1860s near Tucson; and an O’odham calendar stick from Indian Oasis (now Sells) dates the first such dance in that area in ...

Article

Chiesa  

Michael Tilmouth

revised by Sandra Mangsen

(It.: ‘church’)

In the Baroque period the qualification ‘da chiesa’ was added to the title of an individual vocal or instrumental piece, or to an entire volume, denoting that the work or collection was suitable for performance in church. In the late 17th century it was most commonly applied to a four-movement sonata, in the form slow–fast–slow–fast, with at least the first of the fast movements in fugal style....

Article

Article

Tyler Bickford

The history of producing and marketing commercial music recordings to children can be characterized by a tension between goals of education and entertainment, with record companies, parents, and educators playing important roles as gatekeepers and curators of “appropriate” music for children. From the beginning, commercial music for children has been notable for its integration with visual, narrative, and material media in toys, books, film, and, later, in television shows and multimedia.

From 1905 through the 1920s, the early recording industry marketed directly to children with products including musical toys, dolls, and toy phonographs such as the Bing-Wolf Company’s “Pigmyphone,” for which various labels produced 5 to 7-inch recordings of nursery rhymes. Music recordings for children expanded in parallel with the children’s book publishing industry, and many elaborately packaged children’s book series were paired with miniature discs that included musical accompaniment, narration, and sound effects complimenting the stories and illustrations. These recordings used mostly male classically trained singers delivering Mother Goose nursery rhymes....

Article

Hugo Cole

Since medieval times children have participated in musical dramas, whether such involvement originated within a church, a school or, later, a theatrical context. This article primarily discusses the history and development of operas for children to perform, rather than works that are particularly suitable for children to watch, such as Humperdinck’s Hänsel und Gretel or Menotti’s Help, Help, the Globolinks! Because of the very close links between school music education and the writing and performing of operas for children, especially from the end of the 19th century onwards, much of the article is concerned with the later history of the genre.

At certain medieval festivals, choirboys in France and England would elect their own boy bishops and might enact their own ludi theatrales. Thus, church records of 1497 tell us that at St Martin of Tours, on the second day of Advent, masked ‘innocentes’ would go into the city, where farces, moralities and miracles would be played – certainly with music. In Tudor times, choristers’ masques were often played at court, the Children of Paul’s appearing before Queen Elizabeth more often than any other company. In the mid-16th century, they and the Children of the Chapel Royal began to give regular performances in private theatres, and occasionally to visit the provinces, forming what were virtually professional companies. Many of the boys were also skilled instrumentalists and music played a vital part in their plays. The more elaborate were almost little operas, with songs, dramatic musical interludes, entr’actes and sometimes a final choral prayer. The last boys’ company was dissolved in ...

Article

Anne Beetem Acker

[chip music]

Term related to music made by the eight-bit soundchips in 1980s and early 1990s gaming systems and microcomputers, as well as music composed using modified (‘modded’) gaming systems or environments designed to emulate the capabilities of early soundchips. (A chip, or microchip, is an integrated circuit packaged in a usually flat rectangular body with input and output pins for attachment to a larger circuit system.) The original systems include the NEC PC-8801, Commodore 64, Nintendo Entertainment Systems, Amiga, Game Boy, and Mega Drive/Genesis. The distinctive sound of music from these systems arises from their use of only a few simple waveforms, white noise, and beeps, as well as unreliable pitches and limited polyphony. Despite these restrictions, inventive chiptune composers in the 1980s emulated many styles of music using flutelike melodies, buzzing square-wave bass lines, rapid arpeggios, and noisy primitive percussion. Game music is designed to loop indefinitely and then quickly switch depending upon the characters or scenes of the game, requiring the music to be simple yet evocative. Composers used software ‘trackers’, tediously entering the note and other information in numerical codes that the hardware chip could use....

Article

Article

James G. Smith, Thomas Brawley and N. Lee Orr

Music written for a group of singers, which is generally known as a chorus or choir. They may perform either in unison or, more commonly, in parts with one or more singers to a part. This article deals with the history and repertory of American choral music of the Western tradition. For further discussion of different genres of choral music see Anthem, Fuging-tune, Glee, Gospel music, Hymnody, Partsong, Psalmody, Shape-note hymnody, Singing-school, Spiritual, and Vocal jazz ensemble. Other genres that use choral forces but are not customarily referred to as “choral” include Cantata, Collegiate a cappella, Ode, Opera, certain types of Popular music, and Work songs. Information on the musical practices of religious denominations, some of which call for choral music, are to be found within general articles (for example, see Jewish music). The vocal music of Native Americans is discussed in articles on the individual tribal groups (...

Article

Robert L. Marshall

(Ger.).

A vocal or instrumental composition based on a pre-existing sacred melody. The equivalent English terms, ‘chorale setting’ and ‘chorale composition’, are restricted to arrangements of German Protestant hymns (‘chorale’; Ger. Kirchenlied), but the German term is also applied to compositions based on chants of the Gregorian repertory (Ger. gregorianischer Choral...

Article

Chorale  

Robert L. Marshall

revised by Robin A. Leaver

The congregational hymn of the German Protestant church service. Typically, it possesses certain formal and stylistic traits appropriate to its lay purposes: simple language, rhymed metrical verse, a strophic musical and textual form and an easily singable melody. Since the Reformation, and particularly during the first 200 years of its existence, the chorale has provided raw material for a variety of compositional forms, including the chorale prelude, chorale motet and chorale cantata (see Chorale settings and Borrowing and Borrowing).

During the first decades of the Reformation, Martin Luther and his contemporaries most commonly referred to the individual items in the newly revived genre of congregational, vernacular hymns as ‘geistliche Lieder’ (spiritual songs), ‘Psalmen’, ‘christliche Lieder’ and ‘geistliche’ (or ‘christliche’) ‘Gesänge’ or ‘Kirchengesänge’. In the later 16th century the term ‘Choral’, which had traditionally referred to the melodies of the Latin plainchant repertory, began to be applied to the vernacular church hymn. This was presumably partly because congregational singing in Luther’s time was led by the monophonic ...

Article

Robert L. Marshall

(Ger. Choralkanate)

A composition generally scored for a combination of voices and instruments and cast in several distinct and relatively independent sections or movements, two or more of which are based on the text (and usually also the melody) of a German chorale. The chorale cantata grew from the multi-sectional chorale concerto as developed by Scheidt and was cultivated most extensively from about 1650 to 1750 by the church composers of north and central Germany. In the late 17th century there were two main types: the ‘pure’ chorale cantata in which all the movements are based on the strophes of a single chorale; and the ‘mixed’ chorale cantata in which the first and last, and perhaps a central movement too, are based on a chorale, while the remaining movements are settings of other texts. In the 1720s J.S. Bach introduced a third type, the chorale paraphrase cantata, in which the interior movements, set as recitatives and arias, are based on poetic paraphrases of the internal strophes of a chorale, while the outer movements retain the original text and melody of the first and last chorale strophes....

Article

Robert L. Marshall

[chorale concertato] (Ger. Choralkonzert)

A sacred vocal composition, developed during the first half of the 17th century, based on a German chorale and scored for one or more voices and basso continuo and occasionally including obbligato instrumental parts. Like the ‘sacred concerto’ or geistliches Konzert, of which it is a sub-category, the chorale concerto adopted the techniques and aesthetic principles of the concertato style of the early Italian Baroque period. There were two main types, distinguished by the size of the ensembles used: the large-scale chorale concerto, cultivated mostly from about 1600 to 1620, which used two or more vocal or instrumental choirs or both, and was modelled on the elaborate polychoral concertos of Giovanni Gabrieli; and more intimate settings, characteristically set for one or two voices and continuo, which emulated the small concerti ecclesiastici of Viadana. Leading composers of the chorale concerto were Michael Praetorius, Schein and Scheidt.

In the 20th century the German equivalent, ...