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Article

Stephen Bicknell

English firm of organ builders. It was founded in Liverpool by William Rushworth. The firm became Rushworth & Dreaper at the beginning of the 20th century when Rushworth absorbed the Dreaper brothers’ music retail business. After World War I the company was able to offer first-class work at competitive prices, securing the contracts for new organs at Christ's Hospital chapel, Horsham (5 manuals, ...

Article

Anne Beetem Acker

Harpsichord manufacturing firm founded by Simon Sabathil (b c1896; d Vancouver, 1980) in 1948 near Salzburg. Sabathil was a choir director, pianist, and organist who had worked for the Förster piano firm in Munich. His son Sigurd (b Marienbad, Czechoslovakia, 1939) began working with his father at the age of nine. In 1959 they emigrated to Canada and in 1960 established S. Sabathil & Son, Ltd in Vancouver, moving to Bowen Island in 1989. In the 1970s they manufactured annually about 100 harpsichords, virginals, and clavichords of modern design, the largest harpsichords being more than three metres long and having eight pedals. After Simon’s death the firm turned more to historical prototypes, but in the 1990s production dropped to 10 to 30 instruments annually, and output declined into the 2000s, when Sigurd shifted his business to the restoration of antique pianos. Sabathil’s modern harpsichords have an aluminium frame that overclads a wooden pinblock, adjustable plastic jacks, a crowned soundboard (which in later years was made from local western red cedar), and double-pinned laminated maple bridges. About 30% of the firm’s instruments were sold in Canada, most of the rest in the USA....

Article

Anne Beetem Acker

South Korean manufacturer of acoustic and digital instruments. The name Samick (‘three benefits’) refers to benefits to the company, its customers, and the national economy. Founded in 1958 by Hyo Ick Lee (d 1990) as a Baldwin piano distributor, the Samick Piano Co. began building uprights from imported parts under the name Horugel in 1960. In 1964 Samick became the first exporter of Korean pianos and in 1970 manufactured the first Korean grand. Guitar production began in 1965, eventually expanding to acoustic and electric guitars, bass guitars, banjos, and mandolins under the names Samick, Abilene, Silvertone, and the Greg Bennett Signature series. In 1973 the company was incorporated as Samick Musical Instruments Co., Ltd. In 1983 Samick engaged the German piano designer Klaus Fenner. Fenner introduced European-style scale designs and three-ply ‘surface tension’ soundboards, which are claimed not to crack or lose their crown and to suffer only a slight tonal disadvantage compared with solid spruce soundboards....

Article

Robert C. Provine

[Samullori]

Korean percussion group whose name (roughly meaning ‘playing of four objects’) was adopted for a recently developed genre of Korean traditional music. The first performance of this type of music by the original group took place in February 1978 at the Space Theatre in Seoul, when the members were Kim Duk-soo (Kim Tŏksu, changgo), Kim Yongbae (kkwaenggwari), Lee Kwang-soo (Yi Kwangsu, puk) and Choi Jong-sil (Ch'oi Chongsil, ching). After a number of personnel changes, only Kim Duk-soo (b 1952) remains from the original group. The group had enormous success in Korea and many international tours after 1982, making several recordings and collaborating with jazz, rock and orchestral musicians.

While the music of Samul Nori is largely derived from parts of traditional Korean farmers' band music (nongak or p'ungmul kut), it is played only on two drums and two gongs (rather than by a large band), is played seated on an indoor stage (instead of dancing outdoors), and has a much more developed, professionalized and virtuoso style. The music undergoes constant development and modification, the four most popular pieces being ...

Article

Sauter  

Anne Beetem Acker

[Sauter Pianofortemanufaktur]

German (Swabian) piano manufacturer. Johann Grimm (b Spaichingen, Germany, ?1785; d Spaichingen, after 1846) originated the firm in 1819. From 1813 to 1819 Grimm was a journeyman with Streicher in Vienna. In 1819 he returned to his birthplace and opened his own workshop, probably with financial support from Johann Nepomuk Sauter. Sauter’s daughter Maria Monica worked for Grimm as housekeeper, in a de facto marriage. Grimm adopted her illegitimate son, Carl (i) Theodor Sauter (1820–63) and taught him piano making. The Sauter firm owns the only surviving piano labelled as being by Grimm, a small Biedermeier-style upright with a Wornum action, but Grimm likely also made square pianos. By the mid-1840s Carl expanded the workshop, now under his own name, employing a dozen assistants. After Carl’s death, reportedly from an injury related to moving a piano, his widow and eldest son, Johann (1846–1909), continued the firm. Under their direction, production expanded to include grands. In ...

Article

James W. McKinnon and Robert Anderson

(Lat.; Gk., usually plural, kroupezai or kroupala)

Ancient percussion instrument consisting of foot-activated clappers (it is classified as an idiophone). It took the form of a sandal with a thick wooden sole hinged to a similarly shaped block of wood on the ground. To each of the wooden parts hollowed clappers of varying materials were attached.

The Hittite word h̬uh̬upal may refer to some such instrument, which was comparatively rare in Greece but became relatively prominent in Rome with the general expansion of instrumental usage there. It found a place in the orgiastic music of Dionysiac festivals, but it was most commonly used by a tibia player to emphasize dance rhythms when accompanying a group of pantomimi, or acting as leader to such a theatrical instrumental ensemble (see also Greece §I 5., (i), (b)). This player was called the scabillarius, and the Roman organization of theatrical musicians, the collegium scabillariorum, was named after him. The scabellum appears also with some frequency in Roman representations of cult music....

Article

Schantz  

Barbara Owen

[Tschantz]

American firm of organ builders. It was founded in Kidron, Ohio, in 1873 by Abraham J. Tschantz (b Kidron, 7 March 1849; d Orrville, Ohio, 14 Sept 1921), a cabinet maker of Swiss descent. Abraham (who dropped the T from his name in 1899) at first built only reed organs, and was so successful that he moved to a larger factory in Orrville in 1875. His first pipe organ was built in 1890 for the First United Brethren Church of Canton, Ohio, and not long afterwards he developed and produced the Zephyr electric fan blower. Shortly after the turn of the century Abraham’s sons Edison (1878–1974), Oliver (1882–1938) and Victor (i) (1885–1973) joined the firm, followed in the 1930s and 40s by his grandsons John, Paul and Bruce, later the principals of the company with Victor Schantz (ii) and Jack Sievert. The Schantz Organ Co. grew considerably during the 20th century, and between World War II and ...

Article

Margaret Cranmer

The name of two German firms of piano makers. The first was set up in 1809 by Johann Lorenz Schiedmayer (b Erlangen, 2 Dec 1786; d Stuttgart, 3 April 1860) and his partner Carl Dieudonné (d 1825) in Stuttgart. Johann’s grandfather, Balthasar Schiedmayer (b Erlangen, 25 Oct 1711; d Erlangen, 5 Oct 1781), and father, Johann David Schiedmayer (b Erlangen, 20 April 1753; d Nuremberg, 24 March 1805), had both been well-established piano makers, the latter working with J.A. Stein at Augsburg from 1778 to 1781. Johann Lorenz soon became a well-known maker nationally, competing successfully with imports from Vienna, Paris and London. Upright pianos were produced as early as 1842. The business became Schiedmayer & Söhne in 1845 when his sons, Adolf (b Stuttgart, 1819; d Stuttgart, 17 Oct 1890) and Hermann (b Stuttgart, 1820; d Stuttgart, 1861...

Article

Cyril Ehrlich

revised by Edwin M. Good

German firm of piano makers. Established in 1885 in Leipzig, the firm moved to Brunswick in 1929 as part of a cooperative, becoming independent in 1931. Destroyed by bombing in 1944, the factory was again producing pianos by 1948. Thereafter production expanded vigorously, reaching a peak of approximately 9000 instruments a year about ...

Article

Seiler  

Anne Beetem Acker

German piano manufacturer. It was founded by Eduard Seiler (b 1814; d 20 Sept 1875) in 1849 as Seiler Pianofortefabrik in Liegnitz, Silesia (Legnica, Poland); previously Seiler and another builder, Scholz, ran a piano repair shop, which had been begun in 1846. In 1872 Seiler was awarded a gold medal in Moscow. A steam-powered factory opened in 1873; it employed 100 workers in 1874. Eduard Seiler’s sons Paul and Max succeeded him after his death, but both died in 1879. In that year Eduard’s youngest son, Johannes (d 1907), who had apprenticed as a piano maker in the Seiler factory and elsewhere, became the technical director, and his brothers-in-law August Lauterbach and Oswald Kasig joined as sales managers. In 1882 the company began to produce its own actions and keyboards, previously supplied by others. New large buildings were added in 1896 and 1907, raising employment to 350, and annual output to ...

Article

Seises  

Robert Stevenson

(Sp. ‘sixes’)

From the 16th century to the 19th, the choirboys who sang polyphony in the cathedrals of Seville, Toledo, Avila, Segovia, Mexico City, Lima and elsewhere in the Spanish-speaking world were called seises – six being their traditional number at Seville and Toledo cathedrals. The earliest papal bulls designating the income from a prebend for a master of the choirboys in Seville Cathedral were Eugene IV’s Ad exequendum (24 September 1439) and Nicolas V’s Votis illis (27 June 1454). Throughout the next three centuries Seville Cathedral (which set the pattern for the Spanish Indies) had both a master of the altar boys who sang only plainchant, and a master of the seises, generally the maestro de capilla or his deputy. The master of the seises boarded and taught them. When their voices changed, and upon receiving a certificate of good behaviour, they were entitled to a few years’ free tuition and other benefits in the Colegio de S Miguel or in the Colegio de S Isidoro maintained by the Sevillian Chapter. Similar ...

Article

Selmer  

William McBride and Carolyn Bryant

French, American and British firms of musical instrument manufacturers. The American firm also imports and distributes wind, string and percussion instruments.

William McBride

The firm was founded in France by Henri Selmer (b Mézières, 20 Oct 1858; d Paris, 29 July 1941). Selmer, who was born into a family of military musicians, studied clarinet at the Paris Conservatoire, obtaining a deuxième prix in 1882. Such was his preoccupation with reeds that in 1885 he set up a business in Paris to make and adjust them. In 1896 he won a silver medal at the Montpellier Exposition and before the end of the century he hired an experienced clarinet maker, who made the firm’s first set of clarinets. He exhibited reeds at the Paris Exposition of 1900, winning a bronze medal. In 1901 Selmer advertised clarinets, flutes, oboes, bassoons and saxophones under their own trademark; however, the quantities produced were small. A catalogue published in ...

Article

Anne Beetem Acker

[Seiffert]

German and Austrian piano manufacturers. Franz Martin Seuffert (b Würzburg, Germany, 10 Jan 1773; d Vienna, Austria, 3 July 1847) studied with his father, Franz Ignaz Seuffert, and with Anton Walter in Vienna. In 1802, with Joseph Wachtl and Jakob Bleyer (another Walter pupil), Franz Martin co-founded a firm to make pianos, but he left in 1811 after disagreement over the invention of an upright piano. That same year, he received Viennese citizenship and was designated a master. By 1816 he was independently making upright pianos, as well as schrankenförmige Harfen, or ‘cabinet harps’. He succeeded his father as Würzburg court organ builder, holding that title until 1834.

The piano maker Johann Seidler (b 1791) partnered with Franz Martin Seuffert from 1827 to 1846 under the name Seuffert & Seidler. In 1836, Seuffert patented a cast-iron piano frame and an upright action. His son Eduard (...

Article

Cheng Liu and Stewart Carter

Largest Chinese manufacturer of traditional instruments. Located in the Minhang district of Shanghai, the corporation was founded in 1958 through the consolidation of 86 small workshops. Huifang Ren led the company from its inception through 1962; Guozhen Wang has served as its director since 1998. The firm produces more than 60,000 erhus (including about 100 of top professional quality) and 40,000 guzhengs annually, and also makes pipas, ruans, yangqins, Chinese flutes, and a few non-Chinese instruments, notably marimbas. Proprietary subsidiaries of the corporation include Dunhuang Musical Instruments Company, Shanghai Guibao Musical Instruments Company, and Lankao Shanghai Musical Instruments Company in Lankao. The firm has manufactured instruments under the Dunhuang brand since 1962. In 1999 the firm signed a cooperative agreement with the Central Chinese Orchestra in Beijing, under which instruments in that orchestra have gradually been replaced with Dunhuang instruments. The firm also maintains a close relationship with the Singapore Chinese Orchestra. Many instruments bearing the Dunhuang brand are exported, particularly through Eason Music in Singapore....

Article

Hugh Davies

Electronic composition machine (not a synthesizer in the current sense of the word), developed by Helmut Klein and W. Schaaf at Siemens & Halske in Munich between 1956 and 1959. It was designed for and was the chief component of the Studio für Elektronische Musik in Munich, which Siemens began planning in 1955, initially to produce the soundtrack for a one-hour publicity film; it was linked to all the other equipment in the studio. A second model was installed in 1964. The director of the studio and the composer most closely involved with the Siemens Synthesizer was Josef Anton Riedl; others who used the machine included the composers Mauricio Kagel, Bengt Hambraeus, Milko Kelemen, and Ernst Krenek, and the sound poet Ferdinand Kriwet. The studio was taken over by a foundation in 1963, and its equipment was moved to Ulm in 1967; it was later acquired by the Deutsches Museum in Munich....

Article

Hugh Davies

revised by Anne Beetem Acker

A pioneering range of electronic percussion instruments developed by the drummer Dave Simmons and manufactured by Simmons Electronics of St Albans, Hertfordshire, from 1980 to 1999. Starting with the Clap Trap, a hand-clap synthesizer, the company produced other electronic drums, notably the very successful Simmons SDSV (SDS5) Electronic Drum Kit (1981), the first fully electronic drumkit. The SDSV was developed with input from Richard James Burgess, drummer with the band Landscape. Exposure from Burgess playing the SDSV on Tops of the Pops spurred considerable interest among many other performers in the 1980s. The SDSV has large, hexagonal, coloured perspex drum pads that trigger digitally stored recordings of drums (including bass drum, the pad for which is played with a pedal), cymbals, and bells; each pad has an associated memory in which recordings of up to four percussion instruments or other sounds can be stored.

In 1983 the SDS6 sequencer unit was produced, to expand the capabilities of the SDSV. That same year, the SDS7 and SDS8 were introduced. The SDS7 used digital erasable programmable read-only memories (EPROMS) with sampled drum sounds, but they proved problematic for live performance. The SDS8 was a less expensive, somewhat simpler version of the SDSV. A further series of small, very simple models—the SDS1, SDS 200, SDS 400, and SDS 800—was introduced in ...

Article

Frank Kidson

revised by William C. Smith and Peter Ward Jones

(d London, c1749). English music publisher, instrument maker and engraver, established in London. He was employed by John Hare's widow, Elizabeth (see Hare family), until her retirement in 1734, when he set up in business for himself, taking over the trade sign from Mrs Hare and probably also her stock and plates. He also had connections for a short time with Thomas Cobb, and when James Oswald arrived in London in 1741 he may have worked for Simpson, who published some of his compositions.

Simpson's early publications were mostly sheet songs, many of which were later gathered into the volume of Harmonia anglicana (1744) containing the earliest known appearance of God Save the King. This collection was almost immediately reissued with the title changed to Thesaurus musicus, and a second volume was added in about 1745. Other notable publications were Henry Carey's The Musical Century...

Article

Laurence Libin and Arnold Myers

In 

Article

Andrew C. McGraw

[selundeng, salunding, selonding]

Ancient Balinese gamelan ensemble associated with pre-Hindu villages. It comprises six metallophones with iron bars suspended over a shallow wooden trough, played with unpadded wooden mallets. Each instrument begins on a different tone of the seven-tone pelog system. The lowest instrument, referred to as the gong, has eight bars. The higher inting gede and inting cenik have four bars each and are played together by a single performer. The mid-range penem and petuduh have four bars each and are connected to form a single instrument but are played, like the Balinese reyong gong chime, by two musicians performing complex interlocking patterns. The higher nyonyong gede and nyonyong cenik have eight bars each and may each be played by one or two musicians. The nyonyong performers typically carry the principal melody in their right-hand patterns, doubled two octaves below on the inting. Ceng-ceng cymbals may be added when accompanying dance works. The ...

Article

Carolyn Bryant and Lloyd P. Farrar

A type of bass tuba used mainly in marching bands, named after John Philip Sousa (1854–1932). It is distinguished from the rest of the tuba family by its shape and widely flaring bell (see illustration). Like the Helicon it encircles the player, resting on the left shoulder and passing under the right arm, with the bell pointing forward above the player’s head. It is especially popular in America but is also used in some European bands; in the 1920s it sometimes appeared in jazz groups. Like upright band tubas, sousaphones are pitched in E♭ and B♭ and are non-transposing instruments. Most have three valves; some have a fourth valve that lowers the pitch by a 4th. The fundamental notes are E♭′ and B♭″.

The earliest sousaphones, made to Sousa’s specifications in the 1890s, had the bell pointed upright and (as described in Sousa’s autobiography, Marching Along...