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Mark Gardner

revised by Barry Kernfeld

American record company. Founded in 1946 by Ross Russell in Hollywood, it rapidly became one of the most important independent labels for bop; its first important musician was Charlie Parker, who took part in seven sessions for the company, which produced some of his best studio work. Other leading players were Dizzy Gillespie, Dexter Gordon and Erroll Garner. Dial also acquired valuable material by Art Tatum from Comet. In 1947 the company moved its premises to New York, where it enjoyed substantial and surprising success with Earl Coleman’s Dark Shadows (1947) and records featuring Dexter Gordon and Wardell Gray, and Gordon and Teddy Edwards. The company also held a substantial catalogue of what it termed ‘historical jazz’ with recordings by Sidney Bechet, Earl Hines and Roy Eldridge. Dial was innovatory in releasing significant musical fragments (such as Charlie Parker’s The Famous Alto Break, 1946) which would otherwise have been lost. In ...



Jonas Westover

Both the entertainment corporation and its radio affiliate are subsidiaries of The Walt Disney Company. They work together to produce, manage, record, and promote musical acts that target the preteen and ’tween demographics. Disney Studios began producing movies in 1939. Radio Disney began broadcasting on 18 November 1996. When it premiered, Radio Disney sought to reach a young audience by playing music by “bubblegum” hit makers, up-and-coming Disney artists, and familiar music from cartoons. In 2001 the station began to play music that included television theme songs from the company’s cable station, the Disney Channel. They carefully engineered, packaged, and cross-marketed stars on television (Lizzie McGuire) and through Radio Disney. In 2002 Disney also developed an awards show—The Radio Disney Music Awards—that brought more attention to these fledgling performers. Although some artists have gained popularity only within the Disney realm, others such as Miley Cyrus have launched major careers. Cyrus starred as the title character of the television show ...


W. Thomas Marrocco, Mark Jacobs and Donald W. Krummel

American firm of music publishers. They were pre-eminent in the USA in the second half of the 19th century. Oliver Ditson (b Boston, 20 Oct 1811; d Boston, 21 Dec 1888) served as an apprentice, beginning in 1826, to Samuel H. Parker, then to other publishers. In 1835 he began his own music publishing firm in the same building as Parker, and in 1836 the two became partners in the firm of Parker & Ditson. When the partnership was dissolved in 1842, Ditson acquired the remaining interest in the publishing company. Three years later John C. Haynes joined Ditson, becoming a partner when Oliver Ditson & Co. was formed in 1857. Ditson’s pre-eminence among the nation’s music publishers is reflected in his service as the first president (1856) of the Board of Music Trade, established in June 1855 to address problems of piracy and underpricing. Other publishers claimed more memorable editions in the 1850s and 60s, notably those of Stephen Foster and of the music of the Civil War. But Ditson, who had quietly assembled a solid catalogue of relatively nondescript sentimental parlour songs during these years, was well off at the war’s end....


Alexander Weinmann

revised by Nigel Simeone

Austrian firm of music publishers. Friedrich Mainzer opened a music lending library in Vienna on 1 August 1817 which from 1825 also sold antiquarian music. Ludwig Doblinger acquired this business on 12 July 1857. On 1 August 1876 it passed to Bernhard Herzmansky (1852–1921) whose son, also Bernhard Herzmansky (1888–1954), managed it until his death, when his nephew Christian Wolf assumed ownership and took over as business manager.

Doblinger expanded the business to include music publishing; in 1874 he obtained the publishing rights of J.P. Gotthard. Under Herzmansky the undertaking had considerable success, particularly with the publication of music by Bruckner (including first editions of his symphonies nos.1, 2, 5, 6 and 9) and other leading composers of the period, among them Ernő Dohnányi and Mahler (Fourth Symphony). At the turn of the century the publishing output was reorganized: many publications were transferred to the newly founded Universal Edition (of which Herzmansky was a co-founder) and the emphasis placed on contemporary operetta. In ...


Thane Tierney

Scottish record company. It was originally established in Austria in August 1990 by musician, painter, and record collector Johann Ferdinand “Johnny” Parth. As far back as the 1950s Parth had reissued vintage recordings, first on the Jazz Perspective and Hot Club de Vienne labels. In the mid-1960s, after consulting with Chris Strachwitz, the founder of Arhoolie Records, Parth and his ex-wife Evelyn launched Roots Records with the goal of creating an Austrian counterpart to Arhoolie; the label, which produced limited-edition reissues (released in America on the Arhoolie label), folded in 1970.

In 1990, using Godrich and Dixon’s Blues and Gospel discography as a guide, Parth undertook the task of attempting to reissue every American blues, gospel, and spiritual recording made between the late 19th century and the early 1940s. He subsequently launched a similar endeavor for vintage American country music. Under Parth’s stewardship, Document produced nearly 900 albums with artists including Thomas A. Dorsey, Lonnie Johnson, Memphis Minnie, Blind Willie McTell, Big Bill Broonzy, and many others. As a result of his success, the Blues Foundation granted him their “Keeping the Blues Alive” award. In ...


Suzanne G. Cusick

revised by Maureen Buja

(b Ghedi, nr Brescia, c1500; d Rome, 1565). Italian printer. His entire professional career was spent in Rome. From March 1526 to April 1527 he collaborated with the printer Giovanni Giacomo Pasoti of Parma on six of the eight music books Pasoti printed for the Roman publisher Jacomo Giunta. By 1531 Dorico was established as an independent printer and bookseller, producing at least five collections of music and one musical treatise during the next six years. In all the music books with which his name is associated from the 1520s and 1530s, Dorico used the double-impression method of printing; after Pasoti’s disappearance from Rome during the sack of 1527, Dorico retained possession of his types and decorative materials, using them in his own editions in the 1530s. After a musical hiatus of seven years, he adopted the single-impression method, devised by Attaingnant, for his edition of Morales’s masses in ...





Frances Barulich

Firm of publishers. In 1941 Hayward Cirker established the firm in New York as a dealer in academic remainders. He issued his first reprint in 1943, and Dover has since become known for its reissues of scholarly texts. Although it specialized initially in scientific literature, the firm soon extended its interests to other areas, including music. Notable among its reprints of music texts are works on Johann Sebastian Bach by Albert Schweitzer and Philipp Spitta, and Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov’s ...


Anne Schnoebelen

(fl Bologna, 2nd half of the 17th century). Italian printer. He was active in Rome before transferring his business to Bologna in 1638. He apparently published no music himself, but the ‘Eredi di Evangelista Dozza’, namely Carlo Manolesi and Pietro Dozza, probably Dozza’s son, issued music during 1663...


Emil Katzbichler

revised by Karl Robert Brachtel

German firm of music publishers. It was founded on 24 November 1910 in Munich by the composer Ludwig Friedman. In 1912 it moved to Berlin, and was taken over in 1930 by Victor Alberti and A.L Robinson, except for the literature department, which had returned to Munich in 1920. Among the musicological works published by the Munich branch were Musikalische Stundenbücher, H.W. Waltershausen’s Musikalische Stillehre in Einzeldarstellungen, Guido Adler’s Richard Wagner, the Sammelbände für vergleichende Musikwissenschaft (ed. Stumpf and Hornbostel), the first two volumes of the Mozart-Jahrbuch (ed. Hermann Abert), Adolf Sandberger’s Ausgewählte Aufsätze zur Musikgeschichte and Faksimiliedrücke berühmter Musiker-Handschriften, and Oskar von Riesemann’s Monographien zur russischen Musik.

The main part of the firm’s output was devoted to music, often in connection with premières of contemporary opera in Munich and operetta in Berlin. The Berlin branch published mainly operas, operettas and ballets as well as dance, popular and film music. Opera and ballet composers published by the firm included Eugen d’Albert, Walter Courvoisier, Robert Heger, J.G. Mraczek, Friedrich Klose, Franz Schmidt, Bernhard Sekles and H.W. Waltershausen; light music was represented by works of Paul Abraham, Ralph Benatzky, Leo Blech, Leo Fall, Jean Gilbert, Emmerich Kálmán, Walter Kollo, Eduard Künneke, Mischa Spoliansky, Robert Stolz and Oscar Straus. After the firm’s liquidation in ...




Stanley Boorman

(b Rouen; d Geneva, 1556–7). French music printer. A Simon Du Bosc, possibly identifiable with the music printer, though called a Parisian, first printed at Alençon between 1529 and 1534. He seems to have been in Paris before that time and was also there in 1534; at the end of that year he was listed as a heretic. Guillaume Simon Du Bosc appears in Geneva, where a heretic would reasonably have gone, in 1553; in that year or the next he was joined by Guillaume Guéroult, a relative, in partnership. Between that year and 1556, when Guéroult appears to have left for Lyons, they printed at least 12 volumes of music, some of which are lost; they include collections of motets by Clemens non Papa, Crecquillon, Gombert, Goudimel, Sermisy and others, and a book of psalm settings. It has been suggested that Du Bosc was the printer, while Guéroult acted as the financial partner and, probably, music editor. Du Bosc also printed on his own account, including three volumes of motets (one by Clemens non Papa)....


Samuel F. Pogue

revised by Frank Dobbins

(b Sens, c1515; d Paris, 1576). French music printer. He was active in Paris between 1549 and 1568 and occupied an important position between Attaingnant, whose last music book under his own name was issued in 1550, and Le Roy & Ballard, who began a long career as royal printers of music in 1551.

Described as a bookseller in a document dated November 1540, Du Chemin issued his first printed book in 1541. In 1543 he moved his shop to the rue St-Jacques-de-Latran under the sign of the silver Griffin, the address from which he issued music as well as many books on medicine, grammar, arithmetic, law and Latin literature to the end of his career. In November 1545 he married Catherine Delahaye, ward of the printer Poncet le Preux, who was Attaingnant’s brother-in-law – a circumstance that undoubtedly helped turn his attention towards music printing. Although the inclusion of some music types in a 17th century inventory compiled by Guillaume Le Bé suggests that Du Chemin was himself an engraver, he purchased punches and matrices for music from ...


Joe C. Clark

Record company founded by Houston-based African American entrepreneur Don Robey in 1949. It focused primarily on rhythm-and-blues and gospel music. Robey’s initial label, Peacock Records, was created to record bluesman Clarence “Gatemouth” Brown. The label also recorded Big Mama Thornton’s rendition of “Hound Dog,” which was later covered and made famous by Elvis Presley. Gospel artists including the Five Blind Boys of Mississippi, the Mighty Clouds of Joy, the Dixie Hummingbirds, and the Bells of Joy joined the label and provided much of its success during the early 1950s.

In 1952 Peacock acquired the Memphis-based rhythm-and-blues label Duke from WDIA DJ David James Mattis. Its roster included Rosco Gordon, Bobby “Blue” Bland, and Johnny Ace. Robey later formed additional subsidiary labels: Sure Shot; Song Bird, which featured gospel music; Back Beat, formed in 1957 to meet the growing teen market; and Peacock’s Progressive Jazz label.

In 1973 Robey retired and sold the Duke/Peacock label, affiliated labels, and publishing companies to ABC-Dunhill Records. Its catalog consisted of nearly 2700 songs and approximately ...



Robert S. Nichols

revised by Nigel Simeone and Jeremy Drake

French firm of publishers. The firm was founded as Durand-Schoenewerk & Cie on 30 December 1869 and that same day bought the catalogue of Gustave-Alexandre Flaxland as well as his premises at 4 place de la Madeleine, Paris. Schoenewerk withdrew from the business on 19 November 1891, and his co-founder Auguste Durand (b Paris, 10 July 1830; d Paris, 31 May 1909) reorganized the firm the next day as A. Durand & Fils, in partnership with his son Jacques Massacrié Durand (b Paris, 22 Feb 1865; d Avon, Seine-et-Marne, 22 Aug 1928). Jacques Durand succeeded his father, and taking as partner his cousin Gaston Choisnel (d 9 June 1921), renamed the firm Durand & Cie on 23 December 1909. Another cousin, René Dommange, joined the firm in July 1920 and became a partner on 23 April 1921. At Jacques Durand’s death, his widow (...


Dave Laing

American record label. It was established in 1957 by the Atlantic record company of New York. The recordings released on East West were leased by Atlantic from independent producers Lee Hazelwood of Phoenix, Arizona, and Lester Sill of Los Angeles. The only hit record on East West was the rock and roll instrumental Weekend by the Kingsmen, although the label also issued the first recording by David Gates, later a member of the group Bread. The label ceased activity in 1958, but the name was revived in 1990 for use by the UK and German subsidiaries of the Warner Music Group (the owners of Atlantic). The new East West labels operated alongside Warner's WEA label in each country and issued music by local popular music artists and recordings by Atlantic's American artists. During the 1990s further East West labels were established in Japan, Australia, France (where the Carrere label was renamed East West in ...



Record label. It was owned by the East Wind Trade Associates company, founded in 1984 in Hartford, Connecticut, by Steve Boulay, Ted Everts, and David Barrick with the assistance of Gerald A. Friedman. Its catalogue was devoted to Russian jazz in styles ranging from bop to jazz-rock. (E. Schmitt: “3 in Hartford Importing Records of Russian Jazz,” ...


Miriam Miller

revised by Jeremy L. Smith

(bc1540; d London, 1608). English music printer and publisher. There is no evidence to support the theory that one of the variant spellings of his name, ‘Este’, might indicate Italian origin. From evidence of his deposition in a civil case, it seems that East was born in Swavesey, Cambridgeshire, and was the uncle of the composer Michael East, not his father, as has often been conjectured. East's ancestors had already settled in England many years before his birth; his array of type ornaments included two pieces in the design of the East family heraldic seal, which has been traced to the regin of Henry VII. He was made free of the Stationers’ Company in London in 1565, and worked at first mainly as a trade-printer for other London-based publishers. He was one of those who signed ‘The complaynt of the poor printers’, a list of grievances sent to Lord Burghley in about ...