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Barry Kernfeld

[Editions of Contemporary Music]

German record company. It was founded in Cologne in 1969. By 1971 it was recognized for its excellent recordings of free jazz played by such artists as Paul Bley, Jan Garbarek and Marion Brown; by the late 1990s over 600 recordings had been issued on ECM and about 15 on its affiliated label Japo. ECM has a readily identifiable house style, uniting two previously disparate genres, jazz-rock and free jazz. Musicians who have recorded frequently for the company include Garbarek, Gary Burton, Chick Corea, Jack DeJohnette, Egberto Gismonti, Keith Jarrett, Pat Metheny, Terje Rypdal and Ralph Towner....


Alexander Weinmann

Austrian firm of music publishers. It was founded by Joseph Eder (b Vienna, 26 July 1760; d Vienna, 17 Feb 1835), who originally sold fancy goods and cheap engravings by the Prague publisher Balzer in the provinces. He later became a partner in the Vienna branch of Balzer's firm, and in 1789 its proprietor. On 16 September 1789 he opened a fine art and copper engraving shop in the Trattnerhof, Vienna, which moved from there to the house ‘Zum Goldenen Krone’ in the Graben on 20 June 1792. With his first music prospectus on 19 April 1794, Eder began a series of isolated attempts at publishing, which gained considerable impetus when Ignaz Sauer became a partner (of Joseph Eder & Comp.) on 2 November 1796; the partnership ended in January 1798, when Sauer founded his own music publishing firm, Zu den Sieben Schwestern. Eder's brisk publishing activity is demonstrated by the fact that 511 works had appeared by ...


John S. Weissmann

revised by Paul Merrick


Hungarian firm of music publishers. It was founded by the state on 1 July 1950 as Zeneműkiadó Vállalat, the successor to the Hungarian music publishing companies Rózsavölgyi és Társa, Rozsnyai, Kálmán Nádor, Ferenc Bárd, Magyar Kórus and Imre Cserépfalvi. Following the reintroduction of capitalism and multi-party democracy to Hungary in 1989–90, Editio Musica was transformed into a limited company in 1993 and was then privatized.

The first publication under socialism was Book 1 of Bartók’s Gyermekeknek (‘For children’), which represented the guiding principle of the enterprise: ‘to serve Hungarian music, particularly music for the training of musicians and the education of the common man wishing to improve and advance his or her knowledge’. The first managing director, László Korvin, and the artistic director, András Rékai, had to rely on ‘outworkers’ for editorial and similar work; but in 1953 the firm acquired its own printing works and thus was able to make long-term plans and cooperate with music publishing companies outside Hungary. In ...


Robert S. Nichols

revised by Nigel Simeone

[Russicher musikverlag; Russkoye Muzïkal′noye Izdatel′stvo]

Russian music publishing firm. It was founded in 1909 by Sergey Koussevitzky and his wife Nataliya with the aim of subsidizing the propagation of new Russian music. Any losses were borne by the Koussevitzkys, and all profits accrued to the composers. The venture was highly successful, both artistically and financially. To ensure copyright protection the firm was first legally established in Berlin as the Russischer Musikverlag, with offices in Moscow and St Petersburg, and later in Paris, London, New York and Leipzig. The main office was moved to Paris in 1920. Originally, to ensure artistic integrity, selection of works was determined by majority vote of a jury composed of Skryabin, Rachmaninoff, Medtner, Ossovsky, Struve and Koussevitzky. However, their rejection of Stravinsky’s Petrushka was reversed when Koussevitzky threatened to withdraw from the jury. Such conflicts were obviated when, in 1914, Koussevitzky purchased the firm of Gutheil, which became an autonomous branch of Edition Russe under his control. Gutheil’s catalogue, begun in Moscow in ...


Alice Tacu

Romanian music publishing house, founded in 1957 in Bucharest. It was established at the initiative of Ion Dumitrescu, the director of the Romanian Union of Composers and Musicologists at that time, was organized as part of this institution’s departments, and subsequently was under the Union’s administration. Its official launch was understated, probably due to repeated previous efforts to establish a publishing house department within the Union, often due to difficulties and uncertainties in legal status. Previous to this founding year, the Union, in its attempt to encourage Romanian music and make it visible to a wider audience, collaborated with private publishing houses, Romanian or foreign, and was connected to the establishment of a Music Department (1954) within a well-known arts and literature publishing house, E.S.P.L.A. (Editura de stat pentru literatură şi artă). It is with this music department within E.S.P.L.A. that the Union’s publishing activity increased and the complete publishing process became professionalized especially in regards to the musical graphic norms for scores and musicological books. Here the editorial staff began to form, and they took their knowledge to the newly formed Editura Muzicală a few years later (...



Marie Louise Göllner

(b Hadamar, July 26, 1502; d Frankfurt, Feb 9, 1555). German printer. He enrolled as a student at the University of Mainz in 1516, probably remaining there until 1519. In 1528 he established a printing business in Strasbourg. In 1530 he moved to Frankfurt, where he was accepted as a citizen in the same year and began printing in 1530 or 1531. During the years 1538–43 he also maintained a subsidiary firm in Marburg where he was official university printer. He soon left this branch in the hands of his assistant, Andreas Kolbe, and returned to Frankfurt. After his death the firm was continued by his widow Margarethe until 1572, when she divided it among his heirs, who continued publishing under the name Egenolff until 1605.

Egenolff was the first printer of any importance in the city of Frankfurt, which was to become one of the main centres of the trade in the later 16th century. His production of about 500 works was large for his time; it included works in a great variety of fields such as medicine, science, history and the classics. His music publications, though a very small part of the total output, reflect his close ties to the humanistic movement and to the leaders of the Reformation. The earlier edition of Horatian odes (...


Marie Louise Göllner

(b Nuremberg, 1524; d Frankfurt an der Oder, Aug 21, 1583). German printer and book dealer. He probably learnt the printing trade in his native city, and he entered the University of Frankfurt an der Oder in 1547. Two years later he took over Nicolaus Wolrab's printing press and within a few years it became one of the main publishing houses in eastern Germany. He soon became official printer for the university and was made a member of the city council in 1570. On 31 October 1577 he requested and was granted the protection of Maximilian II's imperial patent. A subsidiary firm, founded by Eichorn in Stettin in 1568–9, was given to his son-in-law, Andreas Kellner (d 1591) in 1572. The main business was taken over in 1581 by Eichorn's son Andreas (b Frankfurt an der Oder, 17 Sept 1553; d Frankfurt, 21 Nov 1615...


Thane Tierney

Record company. It was established in Annapolis, Maryland, in 1950 by student entrepreneur Jac Holzman. With $300 of his own money and $300 borrowed from classmate Paul Rickolt, the St. John’s College junior launched his label with EKLP-1, New Songs by John Gruen, recorded in a single three-hour session. Holzman subsequently dropped out of college, moved back to his native New York City, and relocated Elektra’s headquarters to Greenwich Village. Early successes included blues albums by Sonny Terry and Brownie McGhee and folk albums by Jean Ritchie and Theodore Bikel, the latter of whom bought a 5% share of the fledgling company. In the early 1960s the label continued to work mainly in the blues and folk arenas; notable signings included Judy Collins, Phil Ochs, Tom Paxton, the Paul Butterfield Blues Band, and Koerner, Ray & Glover.

In 1964 the label expanded into classical music with the launch of the Nonesuch imprint, and by the mid-to-late 1960s Elektra moved aggressively into rock, signing Love, the Doors, and the Stooges, among others, while still keeping its folk roots nourished with new artists, including the Incredible String Band and Tim Buckley. In ...


W. Thomas Marrocco and Mark Jacobs

American firm of music publishers. In 1928 Henri Elkan (b Antwerp, 23 Nov 1897; d Philadelphia, 12 June 1980) and Adolph Vogel (b West Orange, NJ, 12 Feb 1893; d Merion, PA, 28 July 1981) founded the music retailing firm of Elkan-Vogel, and they were joined in 1929 by a third partner, Bernard Kohn. First based in Philadelphia, the company soon expanded and began publishing music; in 1952 Elkan severed his relationship with the firm, and Vincent Persichetti became director of publications for the company. Elkan-Vogel credits much of its success to its early acquisition of important French agencies and assignment of copyright in the USA; these included Durand and Jobert, whose catalogues contained most of the works of Debussy and Ravel. Elkan-Vogel added to its own catalogue compositions of such major composers as Langlais, Harl McDonald, Milhaud, Persichetti and Yardumian; it also acquired the American agencies of Lemoine, Editions Rideau Rouge, Editions Philippo, Hamelle, Consortium Musical, La Schola Cantorum & Procure Général and Dolmetsch Recorders. In ...


M.K. Duggan

[Emericus, Johannes ]

(fl 1487–1506). German printer, active in Italy. He came from Udenheim in the diocese of Speyer. In 1487 he printed two books with Johann Hamman, in 1492 he began printing on his own, and in 1494 for Luc’Antonio Giunta and other Venetian publishers. His speciality was liturgical books with music. Of the 71 books he issued, 67 were liturgical and at least 24 contain printed music or space for manuscript music (20 missals, one gradual, one antiphonal, two processionals and two Libri catechumeni). To print music he used woodcut blocks (a 1493 Missale romanum), metal roman plainchant types in four sizes and added mensural music type for the mensural Credos of the 1499 Graduale. The Graduale has been called the largest book printed in the 15th century; it uses a very large chant type with a variety of designs for different-sized neumes as well as ornamentation or liquescence. The mensural type, a black notation, preceded that of Petrucci by two years....



Peter Martland

[Electric & Musical Industries]

British record company, with additional interests in music publishing and electric and electronic goods.

In June 1931, during the Great Depression, shareholders of the Columbia Graphophone Company and the Gramophone Company agreed to merge and form a new undertaking, Electric and Musical Industries Ltd (EMI). Although both were British-registered companies, most of the shares were owned or controlled by American interests, 43% of the Gramophone Company by RCA Victor and 80% of Columbia Graphophone by the New York bankers J.P. Morgan. Pressure from these investors, who favoured the merger to better protect their investments, compelled the British management to accept this measure.

At the time of the merger, the Gramophone and Columbia Graphophone companies were well-established businesses and world players in the gramophone record trade. The Gramophone Company had started a British and European trade in Emile Berliner's American-made disc records and gramophones in August 1897, when Berliner sent William Barry Owen, an American salesman and speculator, to London with instructions to create a British trade in gramophone goods and to find investors. The same year, the American Columbia Phonograph Company General created a European trade in its American-made cylinder records and machines from a base in Paris, under Frank Dorian. Both businesses prospered. Owen created a dealership network and Dorian extended Columbia's trade across Europe and into Russia. By ...



Many encoding formats exist today to represent music, such as DARMS, NIFF, and MusicXML for score typing and publishing, Csound, MIDI, and SASL/SAOL for computer-generated performances, and AAC, MP3, and MPEG for audio and video recordings. These formats capture specific aspects of music but are unable to encode all of these aspects together.

First proposed in 2001, the IEEE Standard 1599 has been developed to allow interaction with music, such as notes and sounds in video applications, and in ad hoc interactive devices by providing a technological framework that makes prerecorded music and related media content navigable and interactive. This is achieved by the use of layers that combine encodings of music with structural and logical representations to allow alternative versions and random access within the piece. These layers are logically organized and synchronized by XML files consisting of symbols that represent an event, referring and pointing to different instances of the same event in the various layers....


Zdeněk Culka

(b ?1778; d Prague, June 23, 1841). Czech bookseller and publisher. He had a bookshop first in Leipzig and then from 1809 (or 1810) until 1835 (or 1836) in Prague, where until 1832 he also ran a publishing house. He published mostly contemporary dance music, vocal and piano pieces by Prague composers, notably Václav Jan Tomášek. In 1817 he produced Jakub Jan Ryba's book Počáteční a všeobecní základové ku všemu umění hudebnímu (‘First and universal principles for all musical art’), which was of fundamental importance in the development of Czech literature on music. He also attempted to publish the first Austrian bibliography, but failed for lack of support.

K. Nosovský: Knihopisná nauka a vývoj knihkupectví československého [The science of book printing and the development of Czechoslovak bookselling] (Prague, 1927), 212 K. Chyba: Slovník knihtiskařů v Československu od nejstarších dob do roku 1860 [Dictionary of printers in Czechoslovakia from early times to 1860] (Prague, 1966–), 85...



Theodor Wohnhaas

German family of printers and publishers. Wolfgang Endter the elder (1593–1659) began his career as a journeyman printer in Altdorf and Herborn before training as a bookseller in the shop of his father, Georg Endter the elder (1562–1630), in Nuremberg. He owed his leading position among German book printers and publishers during the Thirty Years War to his editions of the Bible and Protestant devotional works, whereas his brother Georg Endter the younger (1585–1629) and his descendants specialized in the printing and distribution of Catholic devotional literature. On being ennobled by Emperor Ferdinand III in 1651 Wolfgang the elder retired from his business in favour of his sons Wolfgang Endter the younger (1622–55) and Johann Andreas Endter (1625–70). After the death of Wolfgang the younger Johann Andreas continued to manage the firm on behalf of his brother’s heirs; after his death the heirs separated. Wolfgang Moritz Endter (...





Christopher Doll

Record company. It was established by CBS in 1953 as a subsidiary of Columbia Records. Although from the start its issues included jazz and pop, Epic for many years was known primarily for its recordings of George Szell conducting the Cleveland Orchestra (including those made with a young Leon Fleisher as piano soloist). In the latter part of the 1950s, as rock and roll began to overtake the industry, the company struggled to find itself artistically and commercially, accumulating an odd assortment of American, Australian, and European performers representing a wide array of classical, jazz, and popular styles.

The label’s fortunes began to change in 1964 with its participation in the British Invasion. Epic distributed the American releases of the Dave Clark Five and the Yardbirds and later those of the Hollies and Donovan. The true turning point for the company was the signing in 1967 of Sly and the Family Stone, whose critical and financial success helped redefine the label as a youth-oriented powerhouse. The company expanded through the 1970s, achieving unimaginable heights in the 1980s with Michael Jackson’s mature solo work (...



Ann Griffiths and Richard Macnutt

French firm of piano and harp makers and music publishers.

Ann Griffiths

The firm was founded by Sébastien Erard (b Strasbourg, 5 April 1752; d La Muette, nr Passy, 5 Aug 1831), the fourth son of the church furniture maker Louis-Antoine Erard (b Delemond, Switzerland, 1685; d1758). As Sébastien Erard was only six years old when his father died, accounts of his having acquired his woodworking skills in his father's workshop cannot be substantiated. He was, however, brought up within a community of skilled artisans, with uncles, cousins, his godfather and older brother all being employed as joiners, cabinetmakers and gilders, for the most part in an ecclesiastical context. He may have known and worked with the younger Strasbourg-based members of the Silbermann dynasty.

Erard most probably arrived in Paris in 1768. The Duchesse de Villeroy (1731–1816) was an early patron, providing him with workshop premises at her mansion in the rue de Bourbon, and in ...


Jerome F. Weber

French record company. Philippe Loury of Editions Costallat launched the Erato label by licensing recordings from Haydn Society in 1952. Charpentier's Te Deum, conducted by Louis Martini, was recorded in 1953, followed by his Magnificat a year later. Martini, along with Jean-François Paillard, Philippe Caillard, Louis Frémaux, Kurt Redel and Karl Ristenpart, conducted an extensive and innovatory programme of Baroque music, while Marie-Claire Alain began a long association with the label, recording the organ works of Bach more than once, and the Hungarian pianist György Sebök recorded 19th-century solo and ensemble repertory. The mutual exchange with Haydn Society ended in 1955, after which Erato recordings were licensed from Westminster, Epic, Decca and several other US labels. From 1963 the Musical Heritage Society issued virtually the entire catalogue in the USA. There was some limited exchange with Hungaroton, Argo, Supraphon and Hispavox. In Germany Erato recordings were issued on Christophorus from ...