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Article

Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

(b Augsburg, April 12, 1903; d Kassel, Oct 29, 1975). German music publisher . He had no formal academic training. A crucial factor in his development was his joining the ‘Wandervogel’ at the age of 11, where his love for folksong was aroused. His spontaneous enthusiasm for ‘natural’ music led in 1923 to his meeting with Walther Hensel, with whom he jointly founded the Finkensteiner Bund, an association of singers; it also spurred him to embark on publishing ventures in connection with the revival movements in German musicology, at first particularly in association with Gurlitt and his pupils. This activity grew into the Bärenreiter-Verlag, set up by Vötterle at Augsburg in 1924 and since 1927 based at Kassel. His many pioneering activities, which gave him a world-wide status in the music trade, reflected and made a significant contribution to important periods of German musicology: in the 1920s, when old music was revived; after the war, when musical interests widened and complete editions were begun and a reappraisal of 19th-century music was made; and, more recently, when a cautious probing of modern music was undertaken....

Article

Theodor Wohnhaas

(b ?Bamberg; d Nuremberg, July 24, 1547). German printer . By his marriage on 15 December 1527 to Kunegunde, widow of Hans Hergot, he became a citizen of Nuremberg and acquired the latter's printing business, which continued to issue Reformation songs under her name until 1538. After her death (Nuremberg, ...

Article

Theodor Wohnhaas

(b Öhringen, c1570; d Nuremberg, March 19, 1632). German printer . He was a printer at Öhringen, but became a citizen of Nuremberg on his marriage to Ursula Adelhart in 1593. He printed or published over 150 items, of which almost a third are music. His publications include works by German and Italian composers, notably Vecchi; he was a particularly staunch promoter of the music of Austrian exiles. His work is discussed in T. Wohnhaas: ‘Nurnberger Gesangbuchdrucker und -verleger im 17. Jahrhundert’, ...

Article

Ilona Mona

(b Stockerau, 1791; d after 1860). Hungarian music publisher, seller of books and printed music, and lithographer . He settled in Hungary in his youth as a cellist at the German theatre in Pest, but in 1837 ill-health obliged him to abandon his musical career, and after two years of uncertainty he opened his shop ‘Musical Merchandise’ in Pest. Besides working as a publisher he participated keenly in the musical life of the city, being closely connected with the Pest-Buda Musical Association; as early as 1837 he submitted to it his draft of a pension scheme for artists, which however was ‘temporarily set aside’. The contemporary press criticized him for his anti-Hungarian attitude but mentioned with approval that ‘at the time of the last Polish uprising he showed sympathy and helped the refugees’. His firm published works by the leading Hungarian composers (e.g. Ferenc Erkel’s Hungarian national anthem and opera ...

Article

Stanley Boorman

(d Copenhagen, 1629). Danish music printer . He was the first Danish music printer of any importance and probably a member of a Danish printing family in Schaffhausen, where he may have been born. In 1586 he was granted a privilege to print a Danish Bible, and in 1598 he established with Mads Vingard a printing business at Copenhagen University, continuing on his own when Vingard died in 1623. Waldkirch visited the Frankfurt book fairs and took publications from Nuremberg houses to Denmark. The bulk of the 25 musical titles that can be assigned to Waldkirch (listed in Davidsson) is made up of psalm books and other liturgical volumes in Danish. He also published music by Borchgrevinck, Brachrogge and Pedersøn, who were working in Venice at that time, and Hans Kraft’s treatise, Musicae practicae rudimenta (1607).

Å. Davidsson: Dansk musiktryck intill 1700-talets mitt/Dänischer Musikdruck bis zur Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts...

Article

Frank Kidson

revised by William C. Smith, Peter Ward Jones and David Hunter

(b ?1665 or 1666; d London, March 13, 1736). Music seller, engraver, printer, publisher and instrument seller, probably of Irish extraction. He was established in London by about 1690. On 24 June 1692 he was appointed musical instrument-maker-in-ordinary to William III in succession to John Shaw, whose trade sign of ‘The Golden Harp and Hoboy’ he also adopted; in the same year he married Mary Allen, by whom he had 15 children, of whom only three survived infancy.

In 1695, when he began publishing, Walsh had few rivals in the trade. John Playford was dead, and his son Henry evidently lacked the initiative to maintain the family firm as a flourishing concern. Thomas Cross, while popular for his introduction of the engraved single-sheet song, was concerned more with engraving than publishing. Walsh was quick to take advantage of the situation, and engraved music appeared from his premises on a scale previously unknown in England. In addition to works by English composers he printed much popular continental music (including Corelli’s sonatas) which he often copied from Dutch editions. From about ...

Article

Frank Kidson

revised by William C. Smith, Peter Ward Jones and David Hunter

(b London, Dec 23, 1709; d London, Jan 15, 1766). English music seller, printer, publisher and instrument maker . He probably assumed control of the business of his father, John Walsh (i), in about 1730, when the relationship with the Hare family apparently ceased and the numbering of the firm’s publications started. On 8 May 1731 Walsh succeeded to the appointment of instrument maker to the king. Although John Johnson and other rivals arose, the business continued to prosper and maintained its excellent engraving and paper. Burney characterized Walsh (ii) as ‘purveyor general’. Walsh fully developed the firm's relationship with Handel, publishing almost all his later works and in 1739 being granted a monopoly of his music for 14 years. About half of Walsh's output was of Handel compositions. The firm also sold other publishers' works, and bought up the stock of smaller firms when they ceased trading. Many of Walsh's apprentice engravers later set up on their own, including John Caulfield, Thomas Straight and Thomas Skillern. Walsh, who never married, was elected a governor of the Foundling Hospital in ...

Article

Frank Kidson

revised by Peter Ward Jones

(b 1678; d London, Sept 26, 1763). English bookseller and publisher . He was established in Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, by 1713, when he began to issue editions of classical authors. From the outset he often published in conjunction with Jacob (later Jacob and Richard) Tonson, issuing plays, librettos and miscellaneous works. The introduction of the ballad opera at Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre gave Watts a brisk trade in the publication of the operas performed there. He issued the first and later editions of The Beggar's Opera (1728), and after this practically the whole of the series of ballad operas (more than 27 altogether) as soon as they were performed. These editions present the airs for the songs, printed from engraved woodblocks, as an appendix, and are especially valuable for giving the old names of the tunes. Another important work is the six-volume The Musical Miscellany (...

Article

Alexander Weinmann

revised by Nigel Simeone

(b Lipto St Miklos, Moravia, May 6, 1855; d Vienna, Nov 8, 1928). Austrian music publisher . On 1 November 1885 he founded a music publishing firm in Vienna in partnership with Carl Hofbauer. In 1890 Weinberger started to publish on his own. His earliest significant work was the lavish Album der Wiener Meister, issued for the International Music and Theatre Exhibition in Vienna in 1892 and including pieces by Brahms, Bruckner, Goldmark, Johann Strauss (ii), Suppé and others. In 1897 Weinberger was a founder-member of the Gesellschaft der Autoren, Komponisten und Musikverleger (AKM), one of the earliest societies of its kind; for the rest of his life he was either its chairman or its honorary president. Also in 1897 Weinberger began to publish works by Mahler, starting with the Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen; this was followed by the First Symphony (1899), Des Knaben Wunderhorn (1900...

Article

W. Thomas Marrocco and Mark Jacobs

(b Stal′noye, Ukraine, March 10, 1904; d Manhattan, November 19, 1992). American music publisher . An accomplished musician, he started publishing music in 1940 in New York. He was director of the Am-Rus Music Corp., in charge of Soviet music distribution in the USA, and in this capacity arranged the first American performances of works by Prokofiev, Shostakovich, Kabalevsky and Myaskovsky. He obtained the highest ever hire fee ($10,000) in ...

Article

M.K. Duggan

(b Strasbourg; fl 1472–99). Alsatian printer, active at Basle . He established his printing shop in 1472, working with the first printer at Basle, Berthold Ruppel, and with Bernhard Richel. His name appears with Jacob von Kilchen’s (‘impensis spectatissimorum virorum MW et JK’) on a spectacular series of printed music books of 1488: a gradual, two antiphonals, missals, and agendas. Another gradual of about 1486 has been attributed to him and a Missale sarumburiense was shipped to England in 1489 at the expense of Wenssler, Kilchen and Hans Wiler. In 1490 financial disaster forced Wenssler to sell his shop; he fled Basle and spent the next decade printing for others in Speyer and Basle and on his own in Cluny, Macon and Lyons. He was allowed to return in 1499. Several missals, vigils and psalters with printed music are attributed to him, but ownership of his types after 1490...

Article

Alexis Chitty

revised by Peter Ward Jones

(b Bremen, 1797; d Eastbourne, March 15, 1885). English music publisher of German origin . He emigrated to London, where, with a piano maker named William Stodart, he established the firm of Wessel & Stodart in 1823. They began as importers of foreign music, but also issued their own publications from 1824. Their main interest was piano music, often issued in the form of periodical albums, and besides the usual popular arrangements of operatic airs and dance music they published the sonatas of Beethoven and Mozart, and the works of piano virtuosos such as Heller, Henselt and Thalberg. They also helped at an early date to promote the music of Schubert, Schumann, Mendelssohn, Gade, Liszt and others in England. Stodart retired in 1838 and Wessel continued the business alone until 1839, when he took in Frederic Stapleton as a partner. From 1833 they began to publish Chopin's works and from ...

Article

Stanley Boorman

(d Graz, May 20, 1618). Austrian printer . One of an artisan family of Nellingen bei Ulm, he was in Bavaria by 1564. He married the daughter of the printer Daser, and between 1568 and 1584 was employed as a typesetter and proof corrector by the music printer Adam Berg of Munich. In 1585 Widmanstetter travelled to Graz, where he was appointed as ‘katholischer Hofbuchdrucker’ to the court, and to the Jesuit College and the university. His salary was 100 florins a year with a free house. He remained there as a printer until his death, with a total production of over 200 titles. He exhibited at the Frankfurt book fairs between 1588 and 1596 (after which date no Graz names appear in the list for 70 years), including some music in his catalogue. His music production was not very large, and surprisingly does not include the music of the Italians who were employed at Graz. (Almost all of this was first printed in Venice.) His most famous titles were Lassus’s ...

Article

(b Lubomierz, Silesia, c1480; d 1546/7). Polish printer, publisher and bookseller . Probably a pupil of Jan Haller he worked in Vienna from 1510 to 1517 and moved to Kraków in 1519. Around 1527 he became ‘royal printer’. He was the first in Poland to use an italic type and the first to print music from movable mensural type in double- and, later, single-impression methods. Among his music publications were treatises, songbooks and numerous anonymous secular and sacred partsongs. After his death Łazarz Andrysowicz (b Stryków; d Kraków, 1577) married Wietor’s widow and took over the firm. He published many works by Polish composers, mostly popular partsongs, psalms and hymns. After his death his son Jan Łazarzowicz Januszowski (b Kroki, 1550; d Kraków, 1613) continued the printing firm. Known for publications of a high standard, he too became ‘royal printer’. In music he widened the firm’s output to include lute tablatures, missals and other service books, as well as treatises and partsongs....

Article

R. Allen Lott

(b Germany, 1764; d Philadelphia, Dec 30, 1851). American publisher . He took over John Christopher Moller’s business in Philadelphia in 1794 and established one of the most active and enduring music publishing firms of the early 19th century. He built up a large and varied catalogue of instrumental and vocal music and popular songs, including Stephen Foster’s first published song, Open thy lattice, love (1844). In 1856 the firm was taken over by Lee & Walker, which was in turn acquired by Oliver Ditson in 1875. In 1822 Willig acquired the business of Thomas Carr in Baltimore, and his son George Willig jr took control of that firm (which was renamed after him) in 1829. The Baltimore firm also published popular songs, especially minstrel music such as Clare de Kitchen, Jim Crow and Zip Coon. At the death of George Willig jr in 1874, his sons Joseph E. Willig and Henry Willig, who had joined him in ...

Article

Miriam Miller

(fl London, 1584–1611). English music printer . He owned one of the most successful general printing businesses in London. He held several important offices in the Company of Stationers and ultimately became Printer to the City of London. From 1592 he printed several editions of the Sternhold and Hopkins psalter for John Day and for his son Richard Day. His publications began with John Dowland’s Lachrimae (dated 2 April 1604 in the Stationers’ register); it was financed by Thomas Adams and was one of the most important musical publications of the time. Windet’s music output is not large, numbering only a dozen volumes, including Coprario’s Funeral Teares (1606), Robert Jones’s The First Set of Madrigals (1607) and Ultimum vale (1605) and Thomas Ford’s Musicke of Sundrie Kindes (1607). Windet worked with type, and his printing was always of a high standard, distinguished by spacious layout and a clean, sharp impression. His skill must have been stretched to its limits by the eccentric demands of Tobias Hume’s ...

Article

Rudolf Elvers

(d Berlin, before 1772). German music printer and publisher . He founded his firm in Berlin in 1750 and introduced Breitkopf’s improved typeface there. He published primarily works by Berlin composers (Quantz, Agricola, C.P.E. Bach) and collections such as Musicalisches Mancherley (1762–3) and Lieder der Deutschen mit Melodien...

Article

Teresa Chylińska

(b Kraków, 1523; d Kraków, 15–17 June 1605). Polish printer and bookseller active in Kraków. He was probably a pupil of Florian Ungler. For the high standards of his publications (which equal those of Januszowski), Wirzbięta received the title ‘Sacrae Maiestatis Regiae chalcographus’. A Calvinist, he became the principal printer for the Reformation in Poland. He published much music, almost entirely consisting of songbooks in which Protestant solo songs are well represented. In Walenty z Brzozowa's ...

Article

Albert Dunning

(b Varel, c1669; d Aachen, July 1746). Dutch music publisher and organist of German origin. It is possible that he was given instruction in music by his father, himself an organist. In December 1719, at which time he was musician to the Prince of Nassau, he applied, unsuccessfully, for the post of organist at the Nieuwe Lutherse Kerk in Amsterdam; in 1724 he became organist of the Oude Lutherse Kerk there. The Nieuwe Lutherse Kerk post became vacant again in 1725; Witvogel's request to be transferred there was granted in 1726, and he held that post until his death. On 21 May 1731 he received a government privilege for printing two collections of psalms and spiritual songs which he had compiled for use in the Protestant church. In this way he began his activity as publisher, eventually bringing out at least 93 publications. At his death his firm was taken over by Jan Covens, who later also bought the publications of Roger & Le Cène....

Article

Miriam Miller

(b c1455; d London, 1534). English printer, of French origin . He was Caxton’s assistant at Westminster, London, about 1480, and in 1495 he published an edition of Ranluf Higden’s Polycronicon, the first book published in England to include musical notes. Wynkyn’s reputation as an influential music printer rested for many years on the theory that he printed the ...