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(b Varov Šúr, Sept 17, 1913; d Bratislava, August 16, 1995). Slovak musicologist . From 1933 he studied philosophy at Munich and Innsbruck, where he also took courses in composition with Fritz Wiedlich and in musicology with Walter Senn; he continued his studies in philosophy, theology, the piano and composition in Kraków (1938–9), art history, aesthetics and psychology at Bratislava University (1941–4), composition at the Janáček Academy, Brno (graduated 1952), the piano and organ in Bratislava and musicology with Jan Racek and Bohumír Štědroň at Brno University (1948–52). He took the doctorate at Brno in 1951 with a dissertation on the development of realism and harmony in Suchoň’s work. After a period as dramaturg of the Slovak Folk Theatre in Nitra (from 1941) and music correspondent for Bratislava Radio (1942–5) he visited Vienna, where he collected material for his Bella monograph; he then became director of the Slovak music centre (...


Owen Wright

[Abū Manṣūr al-Ḥusayn ibn Muḥammad ibn ‘Umar]

(d 1048). Arab theorist. A pupil of Ibn Sīnā, his one work on music, the Kitāb al-kāfī fī l-mūsīqī (‘Book of sufficiency concerning music’), is the last important surviving treatise on music before the rise of Systematist theory in the mid-13th century. In the choice and treatment of subject matter it generally follows the lines laid down by al-Fārābī and, particularly, Ibn Sīnā. It thus begins with the physics of sound, and surveys intervals, tetrachord species, octave divisions and melodic movement. The remaining subjects discussed are rhythm (treated methodically and clearly); composition (dealt with in a slightly less abstract way than was customary, with mention of a few technical devices and different categories of song); and instruments (including a classification scheme as well as the traditional lute fretting). Following al-Fārābī, Ibn Zayla also included a general classification of means of sound production, the ordering principle being the degree of approximation to the ideal of the human voice. The ...


Roberta Costa

(b Bologna, July 23, 1904; d Bologna, Dec 20, 1995). Italian composer, conductor and musicologist. He studied the violin and, later, composition with Alfano and Nordio at the Bologna Conservatory. He then undertook much work as a conductor and organizer, founding and directing the choir Euridice, the Bologna Chamber Orchestra and, in 1950, the female G.B. Martini madrigal group. A teacher of choral music and choral conducting (1942–60), fugue and composition (1960–65) at the Bologna Conservatory, he was director from 1965 to 1974. He was secretary of the Italian Contemporary Music Society (1956–9), president of the Association of Italian Choirs and of the National Association of Music Teachers, a member of the Accademia Filarmonica di Bologna e di Roma and of the RAM, London. He also contributed to newspapers and periodicals, was editor of the journal Educazione musicale, and was responsible for the publication of several collections of popular Italian songs....


Piero Rattalino and Noël Goodwin

(b Milan, Jan 2, 1928). Italian conductor and musicologist . He studied at the Milan Conservatory with Votto and Giulini, and he made his conducting début in 1956. He worked in the USA (1959–61) teaching and coaching the winners in American vocal competitions. He then took charge of the Italian repertory at the Deutsche Oper, Berlin (1961–3), worked with the New York City Opera in a similar capacity from 1963 and began guest conducting more widely. In 1969 he published (in Milan) a critical edition of Il barbiere di Siviglia, which was taken up by several companies and recorded under Abbado (1972); Zedda used it for his Covent Garden début in 1975, and in 1989 with the Cologne Opera in East Asia.

This publication heralded much scholarly research for the Fondazione Rossini at Pesaro, of whose complete edition of Rossini (Pesaro, 1979–) Zedda is joint general editor, with Philip Gossett. Zedda conducted numerous performances in Europe and America of familiar and less familiar Rossini works such as ...


Albert Seay

(fl 14th century). South Netherlandish theorist. Nothing is known of him except that he was the author of a short treatise, Tractatus de cantu perfecto et imperfecto (CoussemakerS, iii, pp.113–15). The treatise acts as an introduction to Johannes de Muris’s famous Libellus cantus mensurabilis (c1340). It begins with a short exposé of the intervals and their classification into concords and discords, the diatessaron being named, notably, as a discord and the major and minor 3rds as imperfect concords. There follows, in much condensed form, a ‘new compilation about plainchant, according to the moderns’; this includes solmization, mutation and the modes. Some remarks on discant close the treatise, setting out the customary rules on how to begin and end, choice of intervals, the necessity for contrary motion, the prohibition of mi contra fa, and so on. There is little explanation of any of the remarks made. Only Boethius is referred to by name, but there is evident reliance on other authorities, particularly on Guido of Arezzo. Henricus’s treatise is not important for the information it gives – for most of it is far from new or different – but it does have some value in showing what was considered essential musical knowledge for a beginner in music. It aims to introduce the student to the rules, for they, not practice, are the foundation of art....


Susanne Fürniss

(b Basle, May 14, 1937). Swiss-French ethnomusicologist . He met the anthropologist Denise Paulme and her husband the ethnomusicologist André Schaeffner during a trip to the Côte d’Ivoire in 1958 and thereafter reorientated his musical career, studying musicology and anthropology at the University of Basle (1958–61) while finishing a diploma in percussion at the Basle Conservatory (1960). He then attended the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes and took the doctorate with Paulme and Schaeffner in 1968; he also joined the CNRS at the Musée de l’Homme, Paris, then directed by Gilbert Rouget, in 1967. He was appointed to teach ethnomusicology in 1981 at the University of Paris X-Nanterre; in 1982 he was made editor of the recording series Collection CNRS/Musée de l’Homme, to which he has contributed recordings both before and during his term as editor (Traditional Polynesian Music of the Ontong Java, 1972...


Mariya Ivanovna Roditeleva

(b Leningrad, Feb 22, 1936). Russian ethnomusicologist and folklorist. He studied composition at the Leningrad College of Musical Education with Ustvol′skaya (diploma, 1955), and philology, folklore (with Vladimir Propp) and linguistics at Leningrad University (BA 1958). He obtained graduate degrees in ethnomusicology (1960) and composition (1961) at the Leningrad Conservatory, and in 1960 joined the staff at the Leningrad Institute for the History of the Arts, where he took the kandidat degree in ethnography and folklore in 1964 and later served as head of the folklore department until 1995. During the 1970s and 80s he conducted fieldwork in regions throughout the USSR. He obtained a further doctoral degree at the Kiev Institute of the Arts, Ethnography and Folklore in 1981 and served as department chair at the Pedagogical University, Leningrad, 1989–93.

Zemtsovsky was appointed visiting professor at UCLA in 1994. He then became a research fellow at the University of Wisconsin (...


Karl Geiringer

(b Karlsruhe, March 19, 1898; d Freiburg, Dec 2, 1950). German musicologist . He studied music at Karlsruhe Conservatory and in 1919 gained the Scheffel State Prize for composition. He then studied musicology under Sandberger at Munich and under Kroyer at Heidelberg and Leipzig, obtaining the doctorate at Leipzig in 1924 with a dissertation on Sixt Dietrich; he completed the Habilitation there in 1929 with a work on Willaert. In 1932 he went to Göttingen University as an external lecturer, becoming reader there in 1934 and full professor in 1937. In 1942 he was appointed professor at the University of Freiburg, but his activity there was hampered by the war. Although he had served in World War I he was called up again and was a POW from 1944 to 1946. When the series of Denkmäler was reorganized by its publishers he took charge of the Landschaftsdenkmäler for Lower Saxony. In his research he concentrated mainly on medieval and Renaissance music and was responsible for many important scholarly as well as performing editions....


(b St Peter, Schwarzwald, Aug 9, 1945). German musicologist. After taking private lessons in clarinet and music theory, he studied musicology with Dammann at Freiburg University, with philosophy and German literature as secondary subjects. He continued to study musicology (MA 1973, PhD 1975) with Dahlhaus at the Technische Universität, Berlin, where he completed the Habilitation in 1982 and acted as lecturer, 1982–6; he was also a producer for WDR (1984–6) and a lecturer at the Darmstadter Ferienkurse (1984–6). He was acting professor at Essen University (1986) and Saarbrücken University (1988) and was appointed full professor at Bamburg university in 1989; that same year he was also made lecturer on 20th-century music at the Würzburg Musikhochschule. He has been invited to lecture on 20th-century music at congresses and research institutes world-wide and has received many fellowships, including a five-month research grant from the Paul Sacher-Stiftung (...


Elena Sala Di Felice

(b Venice, Dec 11, 1668; d Venice, Nov 11, 1750). Italian poet, librettist, scholar and antiquarian. He was educated by the Somaschi fathers in the Venetian classical tradition, but was also familiar with the empiricism of Galileo and with rationalism. In 1691 he founded the Accademia degli Animosi, where he became prominent at a very young age as a poet in the late-Baroque mould. Like the more famous Accademia degli Animosi it had as its aim the restoration of Arcadian ‘good taste’. Zeno took part in the debate between G.G. Orsi and Bouhours, defending in a letter to Orsi of 29 October 1706 certain verses of Tasso's Gerusalemme liberata against the accusation by the Frenchman that they were artificially refined. With Scipione Maffei, Antonio Vallisnieri and his brother Pier Caterino Zeno he founded the Giornale de' letterati d'Italia (Verona, 1710). He was the chief editor between 1710...


George Leotsakos

revised by Katerina Levidou


(b Cairo, Dec 17, 1947). Greek composer and musicologist. Born to Greek parents in Egypt, he settled in Athens in 1961, where he studied theory and piano at the Hellenic Conservatory (1975–7), and composition with Yannis Ioannidis (1977–81) as well as physics at the University of Athens. He then went to Paris, where he studied musicology and the aesthetics of music at the Sorbonne, Panthéon Paris 1, with Michel Guiomar and Daniel Charles, as well as ‘musique formelle’ with Xenakis. He also attended Boulez’s seminars at the Collège de France (1982–3) and spent time at IRCAM. He has taught musicology at the Athens University Faculty of Music Studies since 1995, where he is currently Permanent Assistant Professor.

Zervos is anything but a prolific composer. His work, late-romantic and expressionistic in style, reflects his musicological interest in the Second Viennese School. Meticulously conceived and elaborated, his atonal and 12-tone writing (with occasional tonal references, though), illustrated in such works as ...


(b Rostov-na-Donu, Oct 7, 1947). Russian musicologist . She studied musicology at the Moscow Conservatory (1965–70) with Yu.A. Fortunatov (her other teachers included I.A. Barsova and V.A. Zuckermann), and she completed her postgraduate studies at the Leningrad Institute for Theatre, Music and Cinematography with L.N. Raaben in 1974. In 1975 she obtained the Kandidat degree and in 1993 the doctorate. After working as a music journalist for the Moscow Radio (1970–78), she was an editor for Sovetskaya muzïka (from 1992 called Muzïkal′naya akademiya), 1978–94. She has taught music history from 1992 at the A.V. Sveshnikov Academy of Choral Art, where she was appointed senior lecturer in 1994 and acting professor in 1997. Her scholarly interests include the music and the musical aesthetics of the 18th century, the work of contemporary composers from Russia and the former Soviet Union (especially Georgia), musical theatre and incidental music. Opposed to the idea of a ‘pure science’ of musicology, she strives to make her scholarly writings lively and accessible and her journalistic writings on music relevant to other cultural issues. She has also published under the pseudonyms Golodnova, Kozina and Mikhaylova....


Stephen Jones

[Guo Jiguang]

(b Xinmin county, Liaoning, Dec 31, 1920; d Beijing, April 4, 1998). Chinese zheng plucked zither player and scholar. While studying classical Chinese literature in Beijing, he took lessons on the zheng from Lou Shuhua; later he also studied briefly with Liang Tsai-ping. Turning professional on the eve of the Chinese revolution, from 1950 until 1964 he was based at music academies in north-eastern China, also spending periods at the Shanghai and Xi′an conservatories and making many recordings. Having been appointed in 1964 to the Chinese Conservatory of Music in Beijing, he was based there from the end of the Cultural Revolution.

Cao Zheng's zheng playing mainly represented the Henan style, though also borrowing from Shandong and southern styles. An influential music educator, he was author of teaching materials and wide-ranging articles. Despite his base in the conservatory system, Cao Zheng's outlook firmly reflected his training in the Chinese classics. He was also a keen maker and researcher of the ancient ...


Su Zheng

(b Wuchang, March 18, 1904; d Shanghai, Sept 15, 1968). Chinese musicologist and teacher . After graduating in 1931 from a teachers’ college in Shanghai, he studied privately from 1932 to 1935 with the Russian Jewish musician Aaron Avshalomov. He also kept contact with leading Chinese traditional musicians, and later with Beijing opera actors. He taught the history of Western and Chinese music at Hujiang University from 1940 to 1946, and the State Music School of Shanghai (later the Shanghai Conservatory of Music) from 1946 to 1949. After the Communist revolution he held leading positions on the faculty at the Conservatory. He died tragically in the Cultural Revolution.

Apart from his broad and thorough knowledge of both Chinese and Western music, Shen was much admired as an inspirational teacher. He was chief editor, compiler or translator of several influential publications. He also composed works for orchestra such as Xiao zuqu...


Tamara Nikolayevna Levaya

(b Pavlodar, Yekaterinoslav province, 9/Dec 22, 1906; d Moscow, June 27, 1992). Russian musicologist and critic . He studied the theory of music at Kharkiv Conservatory under S.S. Bogatïryov and later studied the theory and history of music with Ivanov-Boretsky and composition with Zhilyayev at the Moscow Conservatory, graduating in 1931. He took the Kandidat degree in 1942 with a dissertation on Tchaikovsky and the doctorate in 1968 with a dissertation on Schumann. In the late 1920s and early 1930s he was a member of the Russian Association of Proletarian Musicians (RAPM) and, as music critic, was on the editorial staff for the journals Proletarskiy muzïkant (‘The Proletarian Musician’) and Za proletarskuyu muzïku (‘For Proletarian Music’). He began teaching the history of music at the Moscow Conservatory in 1931. He was forced to leave his post in 1937 and despite being quickly reinstated was once again dismissed in ...


Dieter Härtwig

(b Pulsnitz, Saxony, March 25, 1702; d after 1760). German composer and theorist . He was a son of the Pulsnitz schoolmaster and organist, Johann Gottlieb Ziegler. He learnt music from his father until he was 13; in 1715 he studied at the Halle orphanage, and in 1720 embarked on three years of theological study at Halle University while continuing his musical studies with his uncle, Johann Gotthilf Ziegler. As a member of the Halle collegium musicum he composed, according to Gerber, several cantatas, overtures, concertos and trios and arranged their performance. In 1723 he was in Dresden, profiting from contact with J.D. Heinichen, S.L. Weiss, Christian Pezold and J.G. Pisendel, and above all learning from Heinichen and Pezold ‘much about music’ (according to Walther). In 1724 he returned to Halle and embarked on a three-year course in law; after that he went to Quedlinburg as court organist, becoming organist of St Benedikti in ...


Siegmund Levarie

(b Erfurt, Germany, Jan 20, 1845; d Chicago, Sept 8, 1912). German-American music theorist . After settling in 1868 in Chicago, he taught mathematics, German and music at the German Lutheran School (1868–71) before establishing himself as a private music teacher. His independent and original views were greatly admired by Hans von Bülow, Hugo Kaun, Leopold Godowsky, Ferruccio Busoni, George P. Upton and others. Ziehn’s critical essays are mostly polemic, whether championing (Theodore Thomas, Anton Bruckner) or condemning (Hugo Riemann, Eduard Hanslick, Philipp Spitta). His system of exercises for pianists led him to the realization that passages beginning on D or A♭ yield upward and downward an exact symmetry of tones and of fingering – a principle of ‘symmetric inversion’ he subsequently applied to music theory. His textbooks on harmony and composition are distinguished by a minimum of rules and explanations and a wealth of music examples (from Schütz and Rameau to Bruckner and Boito). While still structuring chords by 3rds, he strongly rejected Riemann’s functional harmony and proceeded from accepting and interpreting literally the equally tempered division of the octave. The result is a chromatic and enharmonic system, occasionally complicated in its terminology, but pointing to the later language of Skryabin and Schoenberg. His ‘enharmonic law’ affirms that ‘every chord tone may become the fundamental’....


Malinda Britton Schantz

(b Moline, IL, Aug 7, 1926). American composer and musicologist. She studied at the University of Wisconsin, Madison (BM 1948), Columbia University Teachers College (MA 1949) and the University of Chicago. Her composition instructors included Karl Ahrendt and Alexander Tcherepnin. After teaching in the public schools, she joined the music department at Northeastern Illinois University (1961–6) and later taught at New England College (1967–82). She has also taught composition privately at St. Paul’s School (1972–92). Her many honours include fellowships from the MacDowell Colony and first prize in the Delius Composition Competition (1971) for Haiku.

Influenced primarily by the music of Bach, Bartók, Stravinsky, the synagogue and jazz, Ziffrin's style can best be described as postmodern. Expressive and vibrant, her music often includes clear melodic lines juxtaposed against complex rhythmic gestures. Dissonance and quartal harmonies dominate many pieces. Several of her works have been recorded. Her writings include the biography ...


Teresa M. Gialdroni

(b Palermo, Dec 24, 1937). Italian musicologist, son of Ottavio Ziino . After studying with Aurelió Roncaglia and Luigi Ronga at Rome University and graduating in 1962, he taught history of music at Perugia Conservatory (1962–3). Subsequently he studied musicology at Freiburg University with Reinhold Hammerstein, at the Pontificio Istituto di Musica Sacra in Rome with Eugène Cardine and Higini Anglès and at the Scuola di Paleografia e Filologia Musicale in Cremona with Raffaello Monterosso and Federico Mompellio. He taught music history at Cremona, (1967–71), and later at the universities of Messina, Siena (1979–81), Naples (1981–95) and at the Tor Vergata University, Rome, in 1995. He was visiting professor at UCLA during 1986 and has also lectured at Certaldo.

His principal research interests are medieval Italian and French music, with particular reference to the lauda and the Ars Nova. He has identified a number of important manuscript sources, including the Turin manuscript T.III.2 at the Bibliotecà Nazionale Universitaria, and has also worked on subjects from later periods, such as Lorenzo il Magnifico, Palestrina and Tasso, Pietro della Valle, Francesco Lambardi, Stradella and the Roman Baroque cantata, the 18th-century ...


(b Wauneta, KA, June 20, 1923). American musicologist . He attended the University of Southern California, where he took the BA in 1949 and the MA in 1952. He earned the BLitt at Oxford in 1956, then returned to USC to complete the doctorate on Purcell in 1958. His teachers have included Ingolf Dahl, Halsey Stevens, Egon Wellesz and Sir Jack Westrup. He began his teaching career at the State University of New York, Potsdam (1958–9). From 1958 to 1964 he taught at USC. He was professor of music and director of the collegium musicum at Dartmouth College, 1964–8, and following a brief period teaching at the University of Kentucky (1968), he became chairman of the music department at the University of Pennsylvania. He retired in 1993.

Zimmerman is noted for his research on English Baroque music, particularly the music of Restoration England and the works of Purcell and Handel. His numerous Purcell studies culminated in a thematic catalogue (...