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Shelly C. Cooper

(b Peoria, IL, March 15, 1929; d Urbana, IL, Feb 15, 1995). American music educator and scholar. She earned degrees from Illinois Wesleyan University (BA 1951) and the University of Illinois (MS 1955, EdD 1963). She taught for three years in the Illinois public schools before joining the music faculties at Illinois Wesleyan University (1955–6), Southern Illinois University (1956–9), University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (1959–64, 1968–71, 1987–93), and Northwestern University (1964–8). She held several visiting professor positions, including director of the graduate program in music education at Temple University (1978–9) and Distinguished Flora Stone Mather Visiting Professor at Case Western University (1980–81). Known for her seminal research in music conservation based on the work of Jean Piaget, she published more than 50 articles. Among her publications are Musical Characteristics of Children (Reston, VA 1971...


G.J. Cederquist

(Alice )

(b Lincoln, NE, Aug 23, 1960). American Director, adapter, and educator. From a family of academics, Zimmerman received her BS, MA, and PhD at Northwestern University in Performance Studies under the mentorship of Frank Galati. The program focused on how to adapt works of literature for the stage; much of Zimmerman’s later work would reflect such scholarly and text-based influences. Based in Chicago, her career began at Lookingglass Theatre Company, a troupe whose founding members also attended Northwestern. The company’s aesthetic focused on storytelling through strong physicality and breathtaking aerobatics within a highly presentational style, as seen in Zimmerman’s 1990 production of The Odyssey. In 1995 she joined the artistic collective of the Goodman Theatre—a roster of resident directors formed by artistic director Robert Falls—and led a production of All’s Well That Ends Well. Other early notable adapted productions at the Goodman included The Arabian Nights and The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci...


Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

(b Frankfurt an der Oder, Nov 21, 1904; d Cologne, Nov 16, 1978). German harpist and musicologist . He was the son of Rudolf Ewald Zingel (1876–1944), an organist, choral conductor and composer in Greifswald. From 1923 to 1927 he studied at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik in Berlin with harp (under Max Saal) as his main subject. He then studied musicology under Max Schneider, with German literature and aesthetics as secondary subjects, at the universities of Berlin, Breslau (1927–8) and Halle (1928–30). He took the doctorate in Halle in 1930 with a dissertation on harp playing from the 16th century to the 18th. Harpist in the Städtische Orchester of Lübeck from 1932, he joined the Städtische Orchester of Halle in 1934 and the Gürzenich Orchestra in Cologne in 1938, where he remained until his retirement in 1969; he also played in the Bayreuth Festival Orchestra (...


Viorel Cosma

revised by Ruxandra Arzoiu

(b Roman, July 14, 1883; d Sibiu, March 23, 1946). Romanian composer, musicologist, and teacher. He was a Romantic composer and a representative of the national Romanian school (through language and ethos). He studied at the Iaşi Conservatory (1902–5) with G. Musicescu, T. Cerne (harmony), and E. Mezzetti (singing), and then took composition lessons with C. Gatti at the Milan Conservatory (1905–7, 1909–11), and became Magister in composition (1911). Returning to the Iaşi Conservatory to teach harmony (1907–9, 1911–25, 1931–40), he directed the institution from 1922 until 1924, and he was also professor of harmony and singing and director of the Cernăuţi Conservatory (1925–31, now Chernovtsy, Ukraine); in these appointments he established a reputation as a remarkable teacher.

As a composer he was above all attracted to the theatre. Most of his six stage works are based on episodes in Romanian history, and all attest to his supreme handling of the dramatic-lyrical genre of which (together with Caudella, Drăgoi, Nottara, and Stephănescu) he was an originator. His greatest achievements in this manner were the opera ...


Stana Duric-Klajn

(b Belgrade, May 25, 1901; d Belgrade, June 29, 1964). Serbian composer, musicologist, teacher and conductor. He studied at the Stanković Music School in Belgrade, where he also graduated in law in 1924; his composition studies were continued with Grabner at the Leipzig Conservatory (1925–9) and with d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum (1929–31). He directed the Stanković Music School (1937–47) and taught at the Belgrade Academy of Music (1937–64), where he was professor of composition, rector (1951–7) and dean (1957–60). At the latter institution he was responsible for the training of many who later became leading composers. In 1958 he was elected to corresponding membership of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. His compositions treat folk elements in a modern harmonic style, and his treatise on harmony is an original contribution.

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Claude Conyers

(b Kansas City, MO, Dec 21, 1950). American modern dancer, choreographer, and company director. She was trained in various styles of show dancing by Joseph Stevenson, who had been a student of the famed dance anthropologist Katherine Dunham. Zollar followed in Dunham’s scholarly footsteps, eventually earning a master’s degree in fine arts at Florida State University, where she also studied ballet and modern dance. In 1980 she relocated to New York and continued her studies with Dianne McIntyre. Following her childhood bent for making up dances, she founded her own company, Urban Bush Women, in 1984, and began choreographic explorations of the history and culture of African American women in an urban, multi-ethnic environment. Blending modern and jazz dance, her works range in subject matter from Shelter (1988), a piercing study of homelessness, to Batty Moves (1995), a saucy celebration of the buttocks of black women. Some of Zollar’s dances are evening-length works performed to percussive sounds, a capella vocalizations, music by contemporary composers, and the spoken word, arising from librettos written by poets and novelists. Notable among these is ...


Péter Balassa

(b Gyula, March 6, 1928). Hungarian philosopher and writer on the aesthetics of music. He studied under Georg Lukács at Budapest University, where he took the CSc in philosophy. He was principal research fellow at the Institute of Philosophy of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences until 1972, when he became professor of aesthetics at Budapest University. As secretary to the National Committee of Hungarian Aesthetes he coordinated Hungarian research in aesthetics. The first part of his important book on the history of music aesthetics concentrates on the concept of music in antiquity, during the Enlightenment, and in the work of Hegel; the second deals with the Romantic period. His work, characterized by the interpretative application of Marxist aesthetics and Marxist social philosophy (particularly Lukács’s theory of art), also concerns modern theories of music (e.g. those of Adorno, Eisler and Asaf′yev); his essays on contemporary attitudes to music are focussed on the work of Bartók....


(b Panopolis [now Ahmīm], Egypt; fl Alexandria, 3rd or 4th century ce). Greco-Egyptian alchemist and philosopher. He composed allegories, and 28 books, in the form of letters, on alchemy; only fragments survive. A musical treatise has been attributed to him, but should be considered anonymous and of the 8th or 9th century, although it represents a compilation of the ideas of alchemists of the 3rd and 4th centuries, among whom Zosimus was the most prominent figure.

Two chapters on music occur in the writings of the Greek alchemists, one in the treatise attributed to Zosimus and the other in an anonymous work, wrongly assumed by Berthelot and Ruelle to be a commentary on it. According to Gombosi, these two chapters together form a single treatise and the attribution to Zosimus is incorrect. It survives complete in I-Vnm 299 and uses a rare technical term, stochos, which in two other manuscripts is replaced by ...


Ian Mikyska

(b Brno, 13 March 1966). Czech composer, pedagogue, and writer on music, son of zdeněk zouhar. He studied composition at the Janáček Academy of Music and Performing Arts (JAMU) in Brno (with Miloš Ištván and alois piňos) and musicology at the Masaryk University, followed by post-graduate studies at the Hochschule für Musik und darstellende Kunst Graz (with Herman Markus Preßl and younghi pagh-paan) and JAMU. He remains an external pedagogue at both these institutions, as well as being active as a researcher at the Palacký University Olomouc (vice-dean starting in 2010), Ostrava University, and Masaryk University.

His brand of postmodernism is surprisingly respectful, using disparate materials in a serious manner, and generally staying with a few pieces of material for the duration of a piece or movement. Often composed in an additive, evolutionary structure, his works are sonically reminiscent of New York post-minimalism, but are very European in their approach to expressivity and emotional intensity. This approach includes both the intense rhythms of ...


(b Waldbröl, April 12, 1803; d Nachrodt, March 23, 1869). German music scholar, critic and poet of Italian and Dutch extraction. He was educated in Mülheim am Rhein and at the Carmelite Gymnasium in Cologne. After three years’ military service he entered the University of Heidelberg in 1826 to study civics and law. There he joined a circle around Thibaut which concerned itself with early church music and the preservation of folksong repertories, and with friends he founded a literary student club. He also interested himself at this time with the German language and its dialects, mythology, archaeology, history, astronomy and natural science. In 1829 he published with E. Baumstark his first folksong collection, Bardale, and in the same year ceased studying for financial reasons. After living in Cologne, Mülheim and Bouzonville, he became tutor to the only son of Prince Gorchakov of Warsaw in 1833. In Warsaw he met Ernemann, Elsner, Vieuxtemps and Henselt and wrote for periodicals, among them Schumann’s ...


Wolfgang Suppan

(b Vienna, July 2, 1896; d Locarno, Switzerland, April 24, 1965). Austrian musicologist and conductor, active in the USA. Possibly a member of the Schenker's circle of students in Vienna as early as 1912, Zuckerkandl studied the piano with Richard Robert and after army service during World War I, was a free-lance conductor in Vienna, 1920–29. In 1927 he took the doctorate in musicology, with a dissertation on the methods of instrumentation in Mozart's works. (He also took art history and philosophy as secondary subjects.) He was a music critic for the Ullstein-Blätter, an editor for the publisher Bermann-Fischer (1927–33) and taught music theory at the Vienna Music Academy until 1938. After fleeing Austria, he taught at Wellesley College (1942) and then worked as a machinist in an arms factory in Boston. In 1946 he became a music theory teacher at the New School of Social Research, New York and in ...


Grigory L′vovich Golovinsky

(b Brailov, Ukraine, Oct 6, 1903; d Moscow, Sept 30, 1988). Russian musicologist and teacher. He graduated from the Kiev Conservatory, having studied the piano with Boleslav Yavorsky, Felix Blumenfeld and Grigory Kogan, and music theory with Yavorsky and A.A Al′shvang. From 1923 to 1926 he lectured on musicology at the Kiev Conservatory after which he taught at the Moscow Conservatory, where he was head of one of its music theory departments (1936–42) and professor from 1939. While teaching at the conservatory he obtained the Kandidat degree (1931) and the doctorate (1958). He was also active in the Union of Soviet Composers and was awarded the Order of the Red Labour Banner (1947), the Order of Lenin (1953) and the title of Honoured Worker of Art of the RSFSR (1966). He trained many prominent Russian musicologists, including I.A. Barsova and Grigor′yeva, and composers, such as Denisov, Eshpay and Peyko....


Bojan Bujic

revised by Vjera Katalinic

(b Šibenik, Croatia, July 21, 1925; d Zagreb, Croatia, March 18, 2004). Croatian musicologist and composer . He studied romance and Slavonic languages at the University of Zagreb, graduating in 1950, and musicology at the Academy of Music in Zagreb, where he graduated in 1953. In 1965 he was awarded the doctorate at the University of Ljubljana with a dissertation on Vatroslav Lisinski. He also studied composition in Ljubljana under L.M. Škerjanc (graduated in 1971). He taught in schools in Zagreb (1950–61) and at the Zagreb Pedagogic Academy (1961–78); from 1978 until his retirement in 1990, he taught in the department of musicology at the Zagreb Academy of Music. From 1971 he was a full member of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. In his early career his main interest was Croatian Romantic music, and later he concentrated on Croatian music of the 16th and 17th centuries. He has been awarded the Prize of the City of Zagreb for his extensive study of the life and works of Lisinski, several prizes by the Varaždin Baroque Evenings Festival for his musicological work, and by the town of Šibenik for his entire output (...