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Mojmír Sobotka

(b Frýdek-Místek, Feb 5, 1939). Czech composer and conductor. He studied the violin and composition at the Brno Conservatory (1956–61), then composition with Kapr at the Janáček Academy; his graduation piece was the one-act opera Fraška o kádi (A Farce about the Tub). Thereafter he was a pupil of Bialas at the Hochschule in Munich (1968–70) and of Dvořáček at the Prague Academy of Musical Arts (1974–9). For many years Zámečník was a violinist with the Janáček Opera and the Brno State PO. In 1982 he became founder-director of the Brno Brass Band, an ensemble for which he and other Czech composers have written numerous pieces and arrangements. From 1989 to 1994 he was dramaturge of the opera at the National Theatre in Brno (until 1991 State Theatre of Brno, 1991–93 Regional Theatre of Brno). He was president of the board of the Copyright Union Fund (...


Anders Lönn

revised by Lennart Hedwall

(b 1753; d Stockholm, Feb 21, 1796). Swedish conductor, violinist, viola player and composer. His father, the bassoonist and oboist Johan David Zander (1714–74), moved from Germany to Stockholm as a member of the orchestra of Prince Adolphus Frederik, who acceded to the Swedish throne in 1743. The younger Johan joined the orchestra as a violinist in 1772, rose to third Konzertmeister in 1787 and deputy Konzertmeister the next year, a post he held until his death. As a solo violinist, viola player and conductor he frequently appeared in concerts in Stockholm. He taught the violin at the Swedish Royal Academy of Music from 1785 and at the Opera school from 1786; he became a member of the Academy in 1786.

After his first published works, the two violin solos (1781), Zander composed theatre music in which he emulated the style of French opéra comique...


John C.G. Waterhouse

(b Monticelli d’Ongina, Piacenza, Sept 26, 1873; d Pesaro, Jan 9, 1949). Italian composer, conductor and pianist. He studied with Bottesini and others at the Parma Conservatory. In 1890 he first conducted the orchestra of the Teatro Regio di Parma. From 1893 to 1900 he was in South America, at first as substitute conductor in Marino Mancinelli’s opera company, then independently as a pianist. He directed the Parma Conservatory (1903–5) and the Liceo Musicale, Pesaro (1905–40).

Some of Zanella’s earlier pieces were considered adventurous in their day, especially in their rhythmic freedom: the intriguing Due studi op.44 dispense entirely with bar-lines, as do the opening and closing sections of the evocative, Leopardi-inspired Il passero solitario. Moreover his unpublished compositions of the period include some (mostly piano pieces gathered under the general title L’arte del fare il nuovo and described as ‘composizioni burlesche, avveniristiche’) which were deliberately freakish, with nonsense titles paralleling those of Satie. Later he became, on the whole, more staid and conformist – overproductive and often lapsing into a rather prolix academicism, out of touch with contemporary trends. Even the would-be-modish ...


Barry Kernfeld

[Josef Erich ]

(b Vienna, July 7, 1932; d Vienna, September 11, 2007). American keyboard player, composer, and bandleader. He played accordion as a child and then began classical piano lessons; later he studied music at the Vienna Conservatory. In the early 1950s he performed with leading Austrian dance and radio orchestras and worked as house pianist for Polydor; he also played with Hans Koller (1952), Friedrich Gulda (including a period in 1955 when he played bass trumpet), and Karl Drewo and Fatty George (both from 1956). In 1959 he emigrated to the USA. After touring with Maynard Ferguson (1959) and serving as accompanist to Dinah Washington (October 1959 – March 1961) he spent a month with Harry Edison’s quintet accompanying Joe Williams. In April 1961 he joined Cannonball Adderley, with whom he performed and recorded until 1970. He also played with Miles Davis in the late 1960s and early 1970s. In ...


Karmen Salmič Kovačič

(b Ljubljana, Slovenia, Dec 22, 1912; d Ljubljana, March 13, 1970). Slovenian composer and conductor. He studied at the Ljubljana Conservatory until 1934 as a composition student of Osterc. He continued his studies at the Prague Conservatory, taking masterclasses under Suk, Hába, and Talich (1934–6). His conducting career started at the Opera and Ballet of the Slovenian National Theatre in Ljubljana after his return from Prague (1936). From 1949 to 1952 he was an artistic director of the Opera and Ballet at the Maribor National Theatre, where he founded the Maribor Philharmonic Orchestra. From 1952 until 1958 he worked as a conductor in the Zagreb National Theatre. Then he was invited back to Ljubljana as director of the Opera and Ballet at the Slovenian National Theatre for ten years (1958–68). In 1960 in Slovenia, he married the soprano Ksenija Vidali. He was one of the most highly regarded Slovenian conductors and opera directors, under whom the Slovene National Theatre achieved its strong reputation, even beyond the borders of the former Yugoslavia. He was less well-known as a composer during his lifetime, because his compositional activity was most intensive in the 1930s and 40s. After ...


Roberta Costa

(b Bologna, July 23, 1904; d Bologna, Dec 20, 1995). Italian composer, conductor and musicologist. He studied the violin and, later, composition with Alfano and Nordio at the Bologna Conservatory. He then undertook much work as a conductor and organizer, founding and directing the choir Euridice, the Bologna Chamber Orchestra and, in 1950, the female G.B. Martini madrigal group. A teacher of choral music and choral conducting (1942–60), fugue and composition (1960–65) at the Bologna Conservatory, he was director from 1965 to 1974. He was secretary of the Italian Contemporary Music Society (1956–9), president of the Association of Italian Choirs and of the National Association of Music Teachers, a member of the Accademia Filarmonica di Bologna e di Roma and of the RAM, London. He also contributed to newspapers and periodicals, was editor of the journal Educazione musicale, and was responsible for the publication of several collections of popular Italian songs....


Piero Rattalino and Noël Goodwin

(b Milan, Jan 2, 1928). Italian conductor and musicologist . He studied at the Milan Conservatory with Votto and Giulini, and he made his conducting début in 1956. He worked in the USA (1959–61) teaching and coaching the winners in American vocal competitions. He then took charge of the Italian repertory at the Deutsche Oper, Berlin (1961–3), worked with the New York City Opera in a similar capacity from 1963 and began guest conducting more widely. In 1969 he published (in Milan) a critical edition of Il barbiere di Siviglia, which was taken up by several companies and recorded under Abbado (1972); Zedda used it for his Covent Garden début in 1975, and in 1989 with the Cologne Opera in East Asia.

This publication heralded much scholarly research for the Fondazione Rossini at Pesaro, of whose complete edition of Rossini (Pesaro, 1979–) Zedda is joint general editor, with Philip Gossett. Zedda conducted numerous performances in Europe and America of familiar and less familiar Rossini works such as ...


Zofia Chechlińska

(b Grodkowice, nr Kraków, July 6, 1837; d Kraków, Jan 23, 1921). Polish composer, conductor, pianist and teacher. He studied in Kraków with Jan Germasz (piano) and Franciszek Mirecki (harmony), then (from 1859) in Prague with Alexander Dreyschock (piano) and Joseph Krejčí (composition). From 1866 to 1870 he studied composition in Paris with Henri Reber and Berthold Demcke. He had earlier studied philosophy at the University of Kraków and in 1862 received the PhD from the University of Prague. In 1871 he returned to Poland. He was appointed professor of harmony and counterpoint at the Warsaw Music Institute (1872–8) and became director of the Warsaw Music Society (1878). In 1881 he moved to Kraków, where he was initially a teacher of theory at the music school. In 1888 he helped to establish the conservatory of the music society in Kraków, and became its director. He also conducted symphony concerts and wrote articles for the Kraków journal ...


(b Melbourne, Nov 15, 1874; d Melbourne, March 3, 1927). Australian violinist and conductor. He was the son of an Italian musician who had taken an opera company to Australia in the 1860s. Alberto, who was largely self-taught in music, made his first appearance as a violinist at six, and at 17 toured as a soloist in Tasmania and New Zealand; in his early years he also conducted light opera. He taught privately, at the Melbourne University Conservatorium and at the Albert Street Conservatorium. He founded several musical organizations in Melbourne, including the Melbourne String Quartet (1905) and the Melbourne SO (1906), which then consisted largely of amateurs and his own pupils. For 16 years he was conductor of the Melbourne Philharmonic Society, giving many choral works (including the Australian premières of several by Elgar) with leading soloists from Australia and abroad. He conducted one season with Melba. In ...


Hans-Günter Ottenberg

(b Berlin, Dec 11, 1758; d Berlin, May 15, 1832). German composer, conductor and teacher. His father George, a mason from Saxony, settled about 1750 in Berlin, where he worked as a building contractor and married Anna Dorothea Hintze, daughter of a cloth-worker; Carl Friedrich was the second of two sons of this marriage. Zelter was first taught at home and then attended the Joachimsthaler Gymnasium. At his father’s wish, he trained as a mason, becoming in 1783 a master mason and partner in his father’s business, which he took over in 1787; he remained a member of the Berlin masons’ guild until 1815. In 1787 Zelter married Sophie Eleonora Flöricke, née Kappel, who had three children by her first marriage and bore him eight more but died in 1795. A year later he married the singer Juliane Pappritz (d 1806), who bore him two children....



(b Vienna, Oct 14, 1871; d Larchmont, NY, March 15, 1942). Austrian composer and conductor. Although closely linked to the Second Viennese School (Schoenberg was his pupil), Zemlinsky was no outright revolutionary. While undisputedly a conductor of the first rank and an interpreter of integrity, he lacked ‘star quality’ and was overshadowed by more domineering personalities. His music is distinguished by an almost overpowering emotional intensity. It took several decades before it became known and began to be appreciated.

His father, born in Vienna of Slovakian Catholic descent, converted to Judaism in 1870; his mother, born in Sarajevo, was the daughter of a mixed Sephardi-Muslim marriage. At the age of four he showed aptitude at the piano, and after completing his regular schooling in 1886 he enrolled at the Vienna Conservatory, studying the piano with Door, harmony and counterpoint with Krenn and Robert Fuchs (1888–90), and composition (...


Wilfried Gruhn

(b Wiesbaden, Nov 22, 1936). German composer and conductor. He studied the piano with August Leopolder and Edith Picht-Axenfeld, composition with Kurt Hessenberg and Wolfgang Fortner, and conducting with Carl Ueter at the Musikhochschule in Frankfurt and Freiburg. He began his professional career in 1959 as Kapellmeister for the Städtische Bühnen, Freiburg. From 1964 to 1968 he was the principal conductor of the Bonn opera and in 1969 accepted the post of general music director in Kiel. In 1971 he was appointed principal conductor of the Saarbrücken RSO, which became one of Europe’s leading contemporary music ensembles under his direction. He went on to co-found the Musik im 20. Jahrhundert festival with Christof Bitter, commissioning compositions from both young and well-established composers. In 1984 he moved to Hamburg, where, as the general music director of the Staatsoper, he was first to produce Nono’s opera Intolleranza. He also served as the general music director of the city. From ...


Wayne Schneider

(b New York, June 13, 1917; d Las Vegas, Jan 31, 2000). American trombonist and bandleader. He played with Les Brown (1940–42), Harry James (1943), Jimmy Dorsey (1944), and various groups in Los Angeles (1944–9); during this period he appeared in the films Seven Days Leave (1942), with Brown, and Lost in a Harem (1944), with Dorsey. He then worked as a studio musician for MGM from 1949 to 1957, when he formed his own band; in the early 1960s Zentner’s was the only newly formed jazz-oriented big band to achieve success. Up a Lazy River (1960, Lib. 55374), an arrangement by Bob Florence of the standard by Hoagy Carmichael and Sidney Arodin, was his biggest hit. The group toured the USA, accompanying such popular singers as Johnny Mathis and Nancy Wilson, and played frequently in Las Vegas. In ...


H. Earle Johnson

revised by Nancy Newman

(b Malchow, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, July 28, 1826; d Milton, MA, Dec 29, 1909). American conductor and flautist of Germanorigin. Zerrahn studied with Friedrich Weber in Rostock from age 12, moving to Hanover and then Berlin, where he joined the Germania Musical Society as a flute player in 1848. During the six years the orchestra toured the United States, he was featured as a virtuoso soloist and occasional composer. After the Germania disbanded, Zerrahn remained in Boston and became conductor of the Handel and Haydn Society (1854–98), the Orchestral Union (1854–68) and the Philharmonic (1857–63). He conducted the newly-formed Harvard Musical Association Orchestra from its inception in 1865 until it disbanded in 1882. The ensemble gave the American premières of works by Mozart, Haydn, and Mendelssohn, and promoted new compositions such as John Knowles Paine’s Symphony No.2. Zerrahn was a renowned choral director throughout New England, directing the Handel and Haydn Society’s triennial festivals for more than two decades, the Worcester County Music Association Festivals (...


Victoria Tcacenco

(b Condrăteşti, Ungheni, May 24, 1939). Moldovan composer and choral conductor. He graduated from the Kishinev Institute of Arts where he studied choral conducting with L. Aksyonova. He has since conducted the leading choral ensembles of Moldova such as the Doina chorus (1967–76) and state radio and television choir (1976–87). In 1988 he founded the Renaissance choir which, under his direction, has won a number of awards and performed internationally. Zgureanu won the ‘best conductor’ prize at competitions in Varna, Bulgaria (1995), and Debrecen, Hungary (1996). He has headed the choral conducting department of the Chişinău Institute of Arts and in 1992 was appointed professor. He was awarded first prize by UNESCO for the Trei madrigale (‘Three Madrigals’) in 1995; he has also received many official awards. His output is associated with most choral genres. In stylistic terms, he combines techniques prevalent in post-World War II composition with ancient Moldovan folklore and Byzantine chant. Miniatures such as ...


George J. Grella Jr.

(b Dandong, China, 1973). Conductor of Chinese birth. Zhang studied at the Central Conservatory of Music in Beijing where she undertook conducting at the age of 16 (BA 1994, MA 1996). She made her conducting debut in 1992, leading the China National Opera Orchestra in Le Nozze di Figaro. She then went on to serve as conductor-in-residence of the China Opera House, Beijing, and as the conductor of the Jinfan Symphony Orchestra. Zhang taught one year of conducting at the Central Conservatory (1997) before relocating to the United States for doctoral studies at the University of Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music. After completing her doctoral work, she joined the faculty at Cincinnati as an assistant professor of conducting (2000). In 2002, Zhang won the Maazel/Vilar International Conductor’s Competition, upon which Loren Maazel appointed her to be his assistant at the New York Philharmonic. In ...


Roberto Pagano

(b Palermo, Nov 11, 1909; d Rome, Feb 1, 1995). Italian composer, conductor and teacher. He was director of the conservatories of Palermo, Naples and Rome, and a member of the Accademia di S Cecilia. He was also director of two important musical institutions from the time of their foundation: the Teatro Lirico Sperimentale in Spoleto and the Orchestra Sinfonica Siciliana, with which he produced interesting series of concerts, of which the Giornate di Musica Contemporanea deserve special mention. In writing his Ricordi di un musicista (Palermo, 1994) at the end of his busy career, Ziino declared that compared with other aspects of his multiple artistic personality, he considered composition to be his main musical activity. A pupil of Antonio Savasta, an exceptional teacher who instilled in him a love of counterpoint, Ziino completed his studies under Pizzetti (composition) and Bernardino Molinari (conducting). He was an active, highly competent conductor, with a repertory which ranged from orchestral music of every period and style to opera; this repertory allowed him to assimilate contemporary idioms, which he did with discernment, never merely copying famous models. A prolific composer, his melodic style – while based on Sicilian folksong – avoids the explicit quotation of folk material; his pieces show a contrast between lively, rhythmic movements and spare-textured calm adagios. Among his most important works are the ...


Klaus Kirchberg

(Karl Josef)

(b Frankfurt, Aug 18, 1881; d Würzburg, Jan 1, 1948). German composer, pianist and conductor. Born into a family of musicians, he studied at the Hoch Conservatory in his home town and then embarked on a career as a pianist. In 1908 he joined the staff of the Munich Academy of Music, and from 1920 to 1944 he was principal of the Würzburg Conservatory, where he also conducted and played a large part in the Mozart festivals founded in 1922. As a composer he represented a current of south German traditionalism that was heavily dependent on Schumann and Brahms and sometimes inclined to a popular style. Zilcher employed Impressionist harmonies on occasion, and he also drew on Baroque music and on folksong. His large output (about 100 works were published) is not always strikingly individual, but his music gives an impression of vivid inventiveness, with convincing contrapuntal thematic development....


Gregory S. Dubinsky

(Petrus Ignatius)

(b Würzburg, April 1, 1905; d Hamburg, Dec 18, 1963). German composer and conductor. He studied with Schoenberg from 1925 to 1928, first privately in Vienna, then as a student at the Preussische Akademie der Künste in Berlin. He was an assistant of Kleiber’s at the Berlin Staatsoper (1927–8). He worked as a solo coach and conductor at the Staatstheater in Oldenburg (1928–32). There he helped mount one of the first performances of Berg’s Wozzeck outside a major opera house. Zillig held the post of conductor in Düsseldorf from 1932 to 1937 and in Essen from 1937 to 1940. He was then the principal musical director of the Reichsgautheater in occupied Poznań (1940–43). From 1947 to 1951 Zillig conducted at the Hessische Radio in Frankfurt, and from 1959 until his death he led the music division of NDR. As conductor and lecturer, he energetically promoted the music of Mahler, Schreker, Reger and Schoenberg, and was responsible for the first European performances of many works. Some of his radio programmes served as the basis for his survey of 20th-century music ...


(b nr Kharkiv, 27 Sept/Oct 9, 1863; d New York, Dec 8, 1945). Ukrainian pianist and conductor . He studied the piano at the Moscow Conservatory with Zverev from 1871 and with Nikolay Rubinstein, Taneyev, Tchaikovsky and Hubert from 1875, graduating with a gold medal in 1881. He worked with Liszt in Weimar (1883–6), co-founded the Liszt-Verein in Leipzig, and made his professional début there in 1883. Returning in 1887, he taught at the Moscow Conservatory, where his students included Goldenweiser, Maksimov and his cousin Rachmaninoff. In this period he began work as editor for Tchaikovsky, particularly on the first and second piano concertos. He left the conservatory in May 1891 and from 1892 to 1900 lived and toured in western Europe. He also toured New York, Boston, Cincinnati and Chicago in 1898. From 1901 to 1903 Ziloti directed the Moscow PO; from 1903 to 1917...