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Charles Barber

(Joel)

(b New York, July 10, 1936). American conductor. After early violin studies at the Oberlin Conservatory he studied theory and composition at the University of Minnesota and took up conducting at Tanglewood. He then worked in Maine with Monteux (1958–62), serving as his assistant from 1961 to 1964. Zinman was principal conductor of the Netherlands Chamber Orchestra from 1965 to 1977, music director of the Rochester PO from 1974 to 1985 and chief conductor of the Rotterdam PO from 1979 to 1982. After two years as principal guest conductor, Zinman was appointed music director of the Baltimore SO in 1985, a position he held until 1998. With that orchestra he made important recordings (including a series of Schumann symphonies and much American music) and transformed a regional ensemble into a leading American institution, his musical strengths complemented by an engaging manner, a deep commitment to music education and community relations, deft use of the media and self-deprecating humour (‘I am the Mel Brooks of the violin’, he once declared). He has also appeared with leading orchestras and festivals in the USA, Canada and Europe. Zinman has given numerous premières at Baltimore and elsewhere, including works by Adams, Bolcom, Danielpour, Daugherty, Kernis, Kirchner, Rouse and Torke. His recording of Gorecki’s Symphony no.3 with the London Sinfonietta was an international bestseller. Zinman became music director of the Zürich Tonhalle Orchestra in ...

Article

Stana Duric-Klajn

(b Belgrade, May 25, 1901; d Belgrade, June 29, 1964). Serbian composer, musicologist, teacher and conductor. He studied at the Stanković Music School in Belgrade, where he also graduated in law in 1924; his composition studies were continued with Grabner at the Leipzig Conservatory (1925–9) and with d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum (1929–31). He directed the Stanković Music School (1937–47) and taught at the Belgrade Academy of Music (1937–64), where he was professor of composition, rector (1951–7) and dean (1957–60). At the latter institution he was responsible for the training of many who later became leading composers. In 1958 he was elected to corresponding membership of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. His compositions treat folk elements in a modern harmonic style, and his treatise on harmony is an original contribution.

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Article

Lada Duraković

(b Sovinjak, nr Buzet, June 1, 1910; d Pula, Oct 27, 1993). Croatian conductor, composer, and musical pedagogue. He received the degree in composition in 1934 at the Music Academy in Zagreb. Until 1941 he worked as city kapelmaster and director of the Music School in Sušak. From 1941 until the war he worked at the Croatian State Conservatory in Zagreb and led the Croatian Choral Society ‘Lisinski’. During the war years he conducted the choir of the Central Theatre Troupe of the State Anti-fascist Council for the National Liberation of Croatia (ZAVNOH). From 1946 he worked as conductor of the choir of the Radio-television, music editor of Radio Zagreb, and professor of conducting at the Music Academy. From 1965 until his death he lived in Pula. He worked as director of the School of Music ‘Ivan Matetić Ronjgov’, research associate and ethnomusicologist of the North Adriatic Institute of Jugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts (JAZU), taught at the Academy of Pedagogy, and collected folk-music material....

Article

Deane L. Root

(b Leipzig, July 4, 1854; d Freiburg, May 8, 1941). German conductor and composer, son of Carl Friedrich Zöllner. He studied music at the Leipzig Conservatory (1875–7) under Reinecke, Jadassohn and E.F. Richter, and in 1878 was appointed director of music at the University of Dorpat (now Tartu, Estonia). In 1885 he became a staff member of the Cologne Conservatory, and began directing the male choral society. From 1890 to 1898 he lived in the USA, where he conducted the Deutscher Liederkranz in New York; his festival cantata Die neue Welt was awarded a prize at the 1892 Cleveland Sängerfest. On his return to Leipzig, he succeeded Kretzschmar as director of music at the university and conducted the Paulus male choir; in 1902 he was Reinecke’s successor as professor of composition at the conservatory, and from 1903 music editor of the Leipziger Tageblatt. He resigned his Leipzig positions in ...

Article

Geoffrey Norris

(b Venice, c1715; d ?Venice, after 1781). Italian musician. In 1739 his opera Lucio Papirio dittatore was performed in Graz by Pietro Mingotti’s Italian opera company. On 21 November 1745 he was appointed deputy Kapellmeister to the Bonn court of Archbishop Clemens August of Cologne. He held this post until 1752, and then, probably working with Locatelli’s touring opera company, went to Prague, where in 1753 his opera Il Vologeso was performed. In 1757 he arrived in St Petersburg, producing his opera Didone abbandonata in 1758 and La Galatea two years later. He was appointed deputy conductor of the Italian opera under Raupach, and was subsequently promoted to conductor. He is thought to have succeeded to the directorship of the imperial chapel choir after Galuppi left Russia in 1768. In 1781 Zoppis himself left St Petersburg and probably returned to Italy. Among his other works are a setting of Metastasio’s oratorio ...

Article

George Leotsakos

(b Sparta, Feb 23, 1905; d Athens, Dec 22, 1987). Greek composer and conductor. He studied the violin at the Athens and Hellenic conservatories (1919–24), conducting with Boutnikoff and Mitropoulos and composition with Lavrangas and Riadis. His studies were continued with Kalomiris at the National Conservatory (1926–38) and at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik, where his teachers in conducting were Gmeindl, Schmalstich and F. Stein, and in composition, Blacher, Grabner and Höffer. Zoras was conductor of the Greek National State Opera (1948–58) and at the Deutsche Oper and RIAS radio in Berlin (1958–68). He was appointed director of the Athens National Conservatory in 1968. Although a composer of Kalomiris’s circle, Zoras had little in common with his teacher stylistically. His earlier compositions, such as Thrylos (‘Legend’, 1936), show an almost Ravelian treatment of folk material, with spare harmonies. Later works, including the Symphony (...

Article

Juan María Veniard

(b Buenos Aires, Nov 11, 1935; d Buenos Aires, Aug 25, 1999). Argentine and Italian composer and conductor. He studied in Buenos Aires at the Municipal Conservatory (1947–51), composition with Gilardi at the National Conservatory (1952–7) and conducting with Mariano Drago at the National University of La Plata (1957–65). From 1965–7 he studied in Italy, at the Accademia di S Cecilia, Rome (composition with Petrassi) and at the Accademia Musicale Chigiana, Siena (conducting with Franco Ferrara).

His career as a conductor began in Buenos Aires in 1955. He conducted all the leading Argentine orchestras and toured the American continent and occasionally Europe. He was principal conductor of the National SO (1968–9; 1979–83; 1992) and of the Rosario SO (1977–90) and has appeared frequently at the Teatro Colón, Buenos Aires, conducting both operas and concerts.

He composed music in many genres, including film music. His opera ...

Article

László Gombos

(b Esztergom, May 12, 1887; d Budapest, June 24, 1936). Hungarian violinist, composer and conductor. He studied the violin with Hubay and composition with Koessler at the Budapest Academy of Music (1901–6). In 1907 he qualified as a teacher, and soon after he changed his name to the more Hungarian-sounding Zsolt. As a composer, he made a highly successful début in 1908 with the première of his Piano Quintet, which was awarded the Erkel Prize. Also in 1908 he accepted the position of leader of the Queen's Hall Orchestra, London. He returned to Hungary two years later, eventually obtaining a teaching post alongside Hubay at the Budapest Academy, but then returned to the London orchestra in 1913. Interned in England at the beginning of World War I, he was repatriated in 1919, and subsequently served as professor of violin at the Budapest Academy. His students included Sándor Végh. Zsolt frequently played viola in the Hubay String Quartet, and in ...

Article

Wolfgang Suppan

(b Vienna, July 2, 1896; d Locarno, Switzerland, April 24, 1965). Austrian musicologist and conductor, active in the USA. Possibly a member of the Schenker's circle of students in Vienna as early as 1912, Zuckerkandl studied the piano with Richard Robert and after army service during World War I, was a free-lance conductor in Vienna, 1920–29. In 1927 he took the doctorate in musicology, with a dissertation on the methods of instrumentation in Mozart's works. (He also took art history and philosophy as secondary subjects.) He was a music critic for the Ullstein-Blätter, an editor for the publisher Bermann-Fischer (1927–33) and taught music theory at the Vienna Music Academy until 1938. After fleeing Austria, he taught at Wellesley College (1942) and then worked as a machinist in an arms factory in Boston. In 1946 he became a music theory teacher at the New School of Social Research, New York and in ...

Article

Michael Steinberg

(b Brooklyn, NY, 22 Oct 1943; d Hong Kong, 6 June 2017). American violinist and conductor. He started music lessons when he was three and studying the violin at the age of four. Two years later he first played in public, and at seven became a student of Galamian. He made his first orchestral appearance in 1953 with the New Haven SO, and a formal début recital at Carnegie Hall in 1956. He specialized in 20th-century music and had complete command of new and traditional virtuoso techniques. He gave the premières of concertos by Sessions (for violin, cello, and orchestra), Wuorinen (for amplified violin and orchestra), and the Scottish composer Iain Hamilton, and of works by Babbitt, Carter, Crumb, Wuorinen, and others. From 1963 to 1976 he performed frequently with the pianist Gilbert Kalish, with whom he was associated in a repertory of over 300 works. One of the original Creative Associates at the Center for Creative and Performing Arts, SUNY, Buffalo, in ...

Article

Hans-Hubert Schönzeler

(b Oppach, April 9, 1850; d Munich, Sept 4, 1903). German conductor and composer. Trained at the teachers’ seminary at Bautzen (where he also received a thorough musical education), Zumpe taught in the local school at Weigsdorf in 1870–71, then went as a teacher to Leipzig, where he furthered his musical studies with Tottmann. He turned to music completely when Wagner called him to Bayreuth in 1872 (an association which became the main influence in his development) to assist in the completion of the Ring score. As a conductor he travelled widely throughout Germany and held important positions in Stuttgart (1891), Schwerin (1897) and Munich (1895 and 1900). He also visited London (conducting Wagner at Covent Garden in 1898), Odessa, Madrid and St Petersburg. An energetic and intelligent conductor, he was regarded in his day, especially in Wagner’s music, as comparable to Richter, Mottl and Levi. As a composer he was strongly influenced by Wagner; his operas and operettas enjoyed a certain measure of success during his lifetime. At his death he left an unfinished opera, ...

Article

(b Sachsenflur, nr Mergentheim, Jan 10, 1760; d Stuttgart, Jan 27, 1802). German composer and conductor. His father was in military service before becoming a personal servant of Duke Carl Eugen of Württemberg. After the early death of his mother, Zumsteeg received a good general education at the Carlsschule in Stuttgart, the military academy founded by the duke, where he became friendly with Schiller and the sculptor Johann Heinrich Dannecker (who made a bust of him). Zumsteeg was originally intended for a career as a sculptor, but his musical talent showed itself early. He studied the cello with the chamber virtuoso Eberhard Malterre and from 1775 with the cello soloist and court Kapellmeister, Agostino Poli, who also taught him composition. Zumsteeg’s first works, among them most of the ten surviving cello concertos, were composed during his student days. The most significant works of this period are the melodramatic setting of Klopstock’s ode ...

Article

Irena Poniatowska

(b Żary or Laskowiec, Feb 13, 1796 or 1793; d Warsaw, June 19, 1867). Polish tenor and conductor . He studied the violin and then made his début as a singer in Paisiello’s La frascatana at Minsk (1814). He sang at Vilnius (1815–23, 1838 and 1851...