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Dennis Libby

revised by Emanuele Senici and Davide Stefani

(Felice)

(b Florence, 20 Nov 1826; d Florence, 22 June 1891). Italian scholar. He grew up in a family with artistic influence (his grandfather Luigi Ademollo and his cousin Carlo Ademollo were well-known painters; his uncle Geremia Sbolci (singer) and cousins Jefte Sbolci (cellist and conductor) and Jubal Sbolci (oboist and composer) were behind the first attempts at creating musical and philharmonic societies in late 1850s Florence). He attended the Scuole Pie Fiorentine and from 1845 wrote political articles for Florentine journals (Il Commercio, Il Popolano, Il Lampione, La Vespa) as a liberal moderate. From 1851 and for about 25 years, he wrote theatre and opera reviews for L’Arte, Lo Scaramuccia, La Scena, Gazzetta d’Italia, the Revue Franco-Italienne, and Europe Artiste, sometimes under the aliases of ‘Giosuè’, ‘Malledolo’, and ‘Nemo’. In 1860 he became consigliere of the Corte dei Conti (State Audit Board) and moved with the central government to Rome after it became part of the kingdom of Italy in ...

Article

Mosco Carner

revised by Gabriele Eder

(b Eibenschütz [now Ivančice], Moravia, Nov 1, 1855; d Vienna, Feb 15, 1941). Austrian musicologist. After the death of his father, the family settled in 1864 in Vienna, where Adler entered the Akademisches Gymnasium. In 1868 he began his studies in theory and composition with Bruckner and Dessoff at the conservatory, but his family wanted him to prepare for a legal career, for which purpose he studied law at the University of Vienna (JurD 1878). While at the university Adler gave a series of lectures on Wagner's Ring (1875–6) and with Felix Mottl and others, founded the Akademischer Wagnerverein. After serving briefly on the Vienna Handelsgericht, Adler decided to take up music history, in which his interest had been aroused by the writings of Ambros, Jahn, Spitta and Chrysander. He attended Hanslick's lectures at the university, taking his doctorate in 1880 with a dissertation on music up to ...

Article

William Y. Elias

(b Berlin, Jan 17, 1925). Israeli musicologist of German birth. He settled in Palestine in 1937, and studied music at the Paris Conservatoire (1949–53) and under Corbin at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes (diploma 1961). He then attended the musicology institute at the Sorbonne, where he studied with Chailley and in 1963 took a doctorat de 3ème cycle with a dissertation on learned musical practice in several Jewish communities in 17th- and 18th-century Europe. Concurrently, he was head of the Hebraica-Judaica section at the Bibliothèque Nationale (1950–63). He returned to Israel to become the director of the music department and national sound archives at the Jewish National and Hebrew University library in Jerusalem (1963–9), and was subsequently director of the library (1969–71). In 1964 he founded the Jewish music research centre at the Hebrew University and was its director (...

Article

George J. Buelow

revised by Quentin Faulkner

(b Bindersleben, nr Erfurt, Jan 14, 1699; d Erfurt, July 5, 1762). German organist and scholar. His father, David, was a teacher and organist, and his mother was Dorothea Elisabetha, born Meuerin, from Tondorf. Adlung’s vivid record of his own life is found in the ‘Vorrede’, part ii of Musica mechanica organoedi (1768). His earliest musical training came from his father who, in 1711, sent his son to Erfurt to the St Andreas lower school. In 1713 he matriculated at the Erfurt Gymnasium, while living in the home of Christian Reichardt who taught him the organ and expanded his general musical knowledge. In 1723 he went to the university at Jena, where he pursued a wide range of subjects including philosophy, philology and theology. At the same time he studied the organ with Johann Nikolaus Bach. A friendship developed with Johann Gottfried Walther in Weimar, which enabled Adlung to borrow theoretical works on music. This enthusiasm for music theory led him to write several books on the subject while in Jena, most of which were later lost in a fire that destroyed his home in ...

Article

Andrew Hughes

(b c1250; d 1331). Austrian theorist. A Benedictine monk of Admont, he studied at Prague (1271–4) and then at Padua (at the university and the Dominican school of theology). After 1285 he probably became Abbot of St Peter’s, Salzburg, and from 1297 to 1327 he was Abbot of Admont. His De musica (ed. in Enrstbrunner: Der Musiktraktat) was obviously written to improve the musical knowledge of liturgical singers and their teachers. It draws on a collection of well-known treatises (including works by Guido of Arezzo, Boethius and Isidor), surveying traditional music theory and terminology and explaining it in terms influenced by Aristotelian thought; yet, despite its didactic purpose, there is a strange discrepancy between the simple explanations of basics and the high level of presupposed philosophical knowledge.

Englebert divided De musica into a theoretical part (parts I and II) and a part concerned ‘more with the practice’ of music (parts III and IV). Part I presents definitions of music and sound, and the various nomenclatures used by earlier authors; part II explains the proportions of intervals and their species in relation to the diatonic context. Part III is concerned with ‘ars solfandi’, describing the solmization system in detail and prepairing, in its explanation of the tetrachord system of the Reichenau theorists, the doctrine of the eight ‘toni musici’. Part IV, the main subject of which is plainchant, contains chapters conveying general concepts and the musical thinking of Englebert, for example the application of the Aristotelian terms ‘motus naturalis’ and ‘motus violentus’ to music. The work culminates with the last six chapters, his teaching on the ‘distinctiones’ in plainchant, in which he explains the necessity of structure in music and of singing with the natural requirements of perception....

Article

(b Frankfurt, Sept 11, 1903; d Brig, Switzerland, Aug 6, 1969). German writer on music and philosopher. The son of a businessman of Jewish extraction, Oscar Alexander Wiesengrund, and a professional singer of Catholic Corsican origin, Maria Calvelli-Adorno della Piana, he adopted his mother's name in the 1920s, initially as Weisengrund-Adorno, dispensing with the hyphen in 1938. In 1937–8 he also wrote briefly under the pseudonym Hektor ‘Rottweiler’.

Strongly influenced by Ernst Bloch's Vom Geist der Utopie and Georg Lukács's Theorie des Romans while still at school, and having had a musical upbringing, with piano, violin and composition lessons from an early age, in 1921 he went on to study philosophy (with Hans Cornelius) at the University of Frankfurt with musicology, sociology and psychology as subsidiary subjects, continuing composition studies with Bernhard Sekles and piano with Eduard Jung. During his student years he became friendly with the philosopher Max Horkheimer and the literary critic Walter Benjamin, who both had considerable influence on his development. Three years after starting university he took the doctorate with a dissertation on Husserl (...

Article

Andrew Hughes

revised by Randall Rosenfeld

[Ailred, Ethelred]

(b ? Hexham, c1110; d York, 1167). English saint, theologian and historian. He was brought up in the household of David I of Scotland, and later became an officer (dapifer) there. He was professed a monk of the Cistercian house at Rievaulx in Yorkshire (1134); he became abbot of Revesby (1143), but later returned to Rievaulx as abbot (c1147). Early in his career he gained the respect and support of Bernard of Clairvaux. Music forms only a small part of his writings: the De abusu musice attributed to him by Vander Straeten (Grove3; GerbertS, i, 26) cannot be identified as his, but chapter xxiii of the second book of the Speculum caritatis, a work inspired by St Bernard, deals with the same topic. He questioned the use of organs and bells in church, unfavourably comparing the noise of the former to the human voice. His chief complaint, however, was against the use of a virtuoso, and indeed histrionic, performance style: ‘Why that contraction and effeminacy of the voice? … Now the voice is reduced, then it is broken, at one time it is forced, at another it is enlarged with a more expansive sound. … At times the entire body is agitated with gestures worthy of actors; the lips twist, the eyes roll, the shoulders play, the fingers move in response to every note’. He was a proponent of stylistic moderation in the performance of chant. Some of his words have been understood as descriptions of part-singing and hocket: ‘One voice joins us, another drops out, another voice enters higher, and yet another divides and cuts short certain intervening notes …. At times you might see a man with an open mouth, as if expiring with suffocated breath, not singing, and with a certain laughable hindering of the voice as if menacing silence’. Some of Aelred's statements resemble those of his contemporary John of Salisbury, and may provide some evidence of the cultivation and performance of complex polyphony in 12th-century England or on the Continent; yet his complaint may have been exaggerated....

Article

Paula Morgan

(b Hohoe, Sept 28, 1956). American musicologist and music theorist, of Ghanaian birth. He studied at Reading University (1974–7) and with Arnold Whittall at King’s College, London (1977–8), where he took the MMus in analysis. He took the doctorate under Leonard Ratner at Stanford University (1978–82), with a dissertation on structure and form in 19th-century music. He began his academic career at Haverford College (1982–4), and subsequently taught at Duke University (1984–6), King’s College, London (1986–9), Cornell University (1989–95; professor from 1992), and Yale University (professor, 1995–8). In 1998 he was made professor at Princeton University. Agawu’s interests cover many areas of musicological research. His theoretical studies include music analysis and theory, semiotics, and post-colonial theory. He has written on the music of the 19th century and particularly on Mahler, and his research on West African music has primarily dealt with the relationship between language and music....

Article

Colleen Reardon

(b c1580; d Siena, Jan 1642). Italian composer and theorist.

Agazzari’s parents were evidently of Sienese origin, and he himself settled in Siena as a boy and received his training there, perhaps from Francesco Bianciardi. He was organist at Siena Cathedral from 1597 to 1602, when he left to direct the music at the Collegio Germanico, Rome (1602–3). In 1604 he attended the celebrations marking the centenary of Siena’s Accademia degli Intronati. By 1606 he was maestro di cappella at the Seminario Romano, but returned to Siena in 1607 after being blacklisted by the Cappella Sistina. In the following years he was organist at Siena Cathedral on three different occasions: in 1609, 1611–17, and 1629–33; he also served for two short periods as music director at S Maria di Provenzano, Siena, 1617–19 and 1620–?1622. Not until February 1641 was he appointed maestro di cappella...

Article

Anna Maria Busse Berger

(fl early 16th century). South Netherlandish scribe. He was previously thought to be a theorist and priest at the church of St Martin at Akkergem near Ghent, but was in fact Anthony of St Maartensdijk, a small town on the Dutch island of Tholen. He copied folios 63–206 of the manuscript ...

Article

Karl-Ernst Bergunder

revised by Peter Wollny

(b Grossfurra, Thuringia, Oct 25, 1643; d Gotha, Feb 20, 1676). German composer and writer. After initially going to school in his native town he was sent in 1656 to Eisenach for three years. There he attended the town school, the staff of which included Theodor Schuchardt, a highly respected teacher of music and Latin. From 1659 to 1662 Agricola studied for his school-leaving examination at the Gymnasium of Gotha; the headmaster there was Andreas Reyher, who was the co-author of the Gothaer Schulmethodus, an educational work which set an example for the teaching of music too. In 1662–3 Agricola studied philosophy at Leipzig University and from 1663 to 1668 theology and philosophy at Wittenberg, where he was awarded a master's degree by the faculty of philosophy. His four recorded scholarly essays dating from this period are lost. He had begun to learn the fundamentals of music during his school years, and he may also have been a pupil of the Kantor of the Thomaskirche, Leipzig, Sebastian Knüpfer. He continued his musical training at Wittenberg, completing the study of composition under the guidance of Italian musicians resident there. Returning to his native Thuringia he was able to turn his musical abilities to good use in the Kapelle of the Schwarzburg-Sondershausen court until in ...

Article

Anna Maria Busse Berger

(b Schwiebus [now Świebodzin, Poland], c1486; d Magdeburg, June 10, 1556). German music theorist, teacher and composer. According to his own statements, he came from a peasant family and was largely self-taught in music. By 1520 he was in Magdeburg working as a music teacher. He became choirmaster of the Protestant Lateinschule in about 1525 and retained this position until his death.

Agricola was one of the earliest teachers of music to realize Luther's wish to incorporate music as a central component of Protestant education. His foremost aim in educating students and congregation was to present material as clearly as possible and to reach a large audience. It was for this reason that his early treatises were written in German rather than the customary Latin. His translation of the terms clavis (as Schlüssel), vox (as Stimme or Silbe) and scala (as Leiter) are still used today. His desire to relate music education to everyday life can be seen in his modernization of old-fashioned rules of harmonic and rhythmic proportions, which he related to commercial arithmetic, in particular the Rule of Three, which formed the most important component of arithmetic instruction in Latin schools. He was the only theorist to consider ...

Article

Lewis Lockwood

(b Groningen, 1443; d Heidelberg, Oct 28, 1485). German humanist and philosopher who was also active as a musician. His early studies took place in Groningen, but in the late 1460s he travelled to Italy for further humanistic training. In 1468 he was at the University of Pavia, where he studied jurisprudence for several years. Later he transferred to Ferrara, where he studied Greek at the Studio and in 1476 delivered a Latin oration for the opening of the academic year in the presence of Duke Ercole I d’Este of Ferrara. This oration praised Duke Ercole’s musical abilities with more than rhetorical flattery; Ercole was remarkably interested in music, and Agricola was formally engaged in December 1476 as organist of the ducal chapel, one of the largest and most opulent in Europe. Agricola’s appointment is confirmed by archival records and by his letters (see Allen); in a letter written at Easter ...

Article

F.J. León Tello

(fl 1st half of the 16th century). Spanish music theorist. He wrote a treatise Arte de principios de canto llano (published between 1530 and 1537/R); it is a conventional work following traditional lines, limited to purely technical aspects of liturgical chant. He regarded the B♭ as a necessary accidental for chant based on F to avoid the melodic tritone and gave rules for the use of plicas; he also categorized intervals according to their effect on the senses, and rejected the Pythagorean classification. Aguilar seems to have been familiar with the writings of his contemporaries, citing Juan de Espinosa and Francisco Tover among Spaniards, Nicolò Burzio, Giacomo Fogliano and Gaffurius among Italians. His quotations are more accurate than those of most writers and add considerably to the merit of the work.

StevensonSM F.J. León Tello: Estudios de historia de la teoría musical (Madrid, 1962, 2/1991)...

Article

Gerard Béhague

(b Montevideo, August 4, 1940). Uruguayan composer, musicologist and teacher of Armenian parentage. He studied composition with Tosar (1955–7, 1966–9), the piano with Adela Herrera-Lerena (1945–59), conducting with Jacques Bodmer (1966–9), musicology with Ayestarán (1964–6) and electro-acoustic techniques with Henry Jasa (1961–3). In Buenos Aires he studied at the Instituto Torcuato di Tella with Gandini and Kroepfl (1969), in Venice with Nono (1970), at the Darmstadt summer courses with Ligeti, Aloys Kontarsky, Xenakis, Globokar and Christian Wolff (1970, 1974), and at various of the Latin American Courses for Contemporary Music with Mumma, Rabe and others (1971–89).

Aharonián has been influential as a teacher and as an organizer of activities in music and music education both in Uruguay and abroad. His teaching specializations range from composition, choral conducting and organology to analysis, musical folklore and music and society; he has taught mainly at the Uruguayan National University and the National Institute for Teacher Training, as well as privately. An assiduous participant and lecturer in seminars and workshops in Europe, the Americas and the Philippines, he has been a member of the executive committee of the International Association for the Study of Popular Music and of the presidential council of the ISCM, and the executive secretary of the Latin American Courses for Contemporary Music. He has received numerous awards from Uruguay and other countries for his work as a composer, musicologist and choral conductor, and commissions from France, Poland, Sweden and Germany....

Article

George J. Buelow

(b Mühlhausen, bap. June 12, 1651; d Mühlhausen, Dec 2, 1706). German composer, theorist, organist and poet, son of Johann Rudolf Ahle. He no doubt received his musical education from his father, whom he succeeded at the age of 23 as organist of St Blasius, Mühlhausen. Like his father he held the post until his death, and he was succeeded by the young Bach. Again like his father, he was elected to the town council. He was described on the title-page of his Sapphisches Ehrenlied (1680) as a bachelor of law, but it is not known where he studied. His education may well have included training in literary composition, for he distinguished himself as a poet and was made poet laureate by the Emperor Leopold I in 1680. His music, some of which is lost, is almost totally unknown. Much of it is scattered through his series of anecdotal novels, named after the Muses, which themselves deserve closer study. He clearly followed his father in his interest in writing songs, both sacred and secular, and his style in them seems to be even more popular and folklike. He also composed music for the church and for occasions such as weddings, anniversaries, celebrations of political events and ceremonies honouring distinguished visitors to Mühlhausen. Among his theoretical writings is his enlarged and copiously annotated edition of his father's singing manual. Here, as in his own treatises, among which the four ...

Article

(b ?Orzivecchi or Orzinuovi, nr Brescia, c1520; fl 1562–81). Italian theorist and Franciscan friar. He was influenced by Pietro Aaron, to whom he referred as ‘my indisputable teacher’, by Spataro and by Marchetto da Padova. His Illuminata de tutti i tuoni di canto fermo (Venice, 1562) expounds a modal theory applicable to plainchant: a mode is a form of diatonic octave divided into segments of 5th and 4th; corresponding authentic and plagal modes comprise the same segments but in reverse order, and the order of steps within the segments is also reversed, ascending in the authentic and descending in the plagal modes. There are eight regular modes (authentic and plagal) with finals on d, e, f and g, and six irregular modes with finals on a, b and c′. The treatise is largely devoted to modal identification of chants with an ambitus smaller or greater than an octave, or which use more than one mode. Identification is based primarily on the predominance of the segments of a single mode, especially those of the 5th, within a chant, and only secondarily on the final and ambitus. Aiguino’s ...

Article

H. Wiley Hitchcock

revised by Nicholas Temperley

(b Swanton Morley, Norfolk, bap. Jan 15, 1571; d Amsterdam, ?1622–3). English minister and psalmodist. He attended Cambridge University from 1586 to 1591, leaving without a degree. He was expatriated as a ‘Brownist’ in 1593 and settled in Amsterdam, where he became ‘teacher’ of the Ancient Separatist Church in 1596; in 1610 he founded an Independent church, becoming minister of it himself. He took the Calvinist position on predestination. He was the author of a number of controversial religious tracts, annotations, and translations of scripture. Many consider him one of the finest Hebrew scholars of his day. His Book of Psalmes: Englished both in Prose and Metre, with Annotations (Amsterdam, 1612, 4/1644; music ed. in ISAMm, xv, Brooklyn, NY, 1981) contains all 150 psalms in a new metrical version, together with prose translations and annotations. 48 are provided with monophonic tunes (six melodies are used twice and one three times). 21 of the 40 tunes are drawn from the Continental Reformed tradition, and 16 are from English sources (including three of the newer, short variety such as ...

Article

(b Kiev, 19 Sept/Oct 1, 1898; d Moscow, July 28, 1960). Ukrainian musicologist and composer. He entered the Kiev Academy of the Russian Musical Society in 1911, but in 1914 he was exiled to the northern Olonets government by tsarist authorities. Returning eventually to Kiev he continued his musical education and worked illegally in courses for workers. At the Kiev Conservatory (reorganized by Glier on the basis of the old academy) he studied composition with Glier and Boleslav Yavorsky, and graduated in 1920 from the piano class, where he had studied with Khodorovsky and Heinnich Neuhaus. In the same year he graduated from the Institute of National Economy.

Al′shvang began teaching in public classes on music history in 1919, and in the same year he was appointed head of the Soviet Military Music School in Kiev. From 1923 he taught at the Kiev Conservatory and at the Valery Bryusov Institute of Literature and Fine Arts in Moscow. From ...

Article

Owen Wright

[Maḥmūd ibn Mas‘ūd al-Shīrāzī]

(b Shiraz, 1236; d Tabriz, 1311). Persian physician and scientist. The most outstanding pupil of the mathematician Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī, he is particularly known for his work in medicine, optics and astronomy. His encyclopedia, Durrat al-tāj (‘Pearl of the crown’) demonstrates his mastery of the whole range of traditional medieval scholarship, and contains within its treatment of the mathematical sciences (quadrivium) a lengthy section on music. This is mainly a restatement of the musical theory developed by Ṣafī al-Dīn, but is important for its attention to musical practice, particularly in its codification and description of modes and rhythmic cycles. In both areas it points to the existence of a wider range of structures than is apparent from the works of Ṣafī al-Dīn; its treatment of the modes in particular is far fuller, and is less restricted by purely theoretical concerns. It ends with the most extended, complex and precise example of notation to be found in the works of the medieval Arab and Persian theorists, a unique document which allows some insight into the nature of the compositional practice of the period with regard not only to formal, modal and rhythmic strategies but also to techniques of text setting....