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Katherine K. Preston

revised by Lincoln Ballard

(b New York, NY, Oct 3, 1930; d Concord, MA, Jan 15, 2002).

American conductor, composer, and theorist. After graduating from Antioch College (BA 1951), Epstein studied with Francis Judd Cooke, Carl McKinley, and Felix Wolfes at New England Conservatory (MM 1953), with irving Fine and arthur Berger at Brandeis (MFA 1954), and with Roger Sessions, Milton Babbitt, and Edward T. Cone at Princeton (MFA 1956, PhD 1968). He also studied composition with Darius Milhaud at Aspen (1955–6), and conducting with George Szell, Max Rudolf, and Izler Solomon. Epstein returned to Antioch to teach (1957–62) before joining the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1965 as an associate music professor and orchestra director. He became a full professor in 1971 and also served as Department Chair at MIT (1982–3; 1988–9).

Epstein made his national (1960) and international (...


Séamas de Barra

(Georg) [Ó Rónáin, Muiris]

(b Munich, April 13, 1910; d Cork, July 21, 1992). Irish composer, conductor and musicologist of German birth. After completing the BMus (1931) and MA (1932) at University College, Cork, he studied composition and conducting at the Akademie für Tonkunst, Munich, and musicology at Munich University (1932–4). On returning to Cork in 1934, he was appointed professor of music at University College, where he remained until his retirement in 1980. Acutely aware of the obligation of his generation to create circumstances in which modern Irish music could flourish in a recently independent Ireland, his involvement in all aspects of musical life was deep and committed. He founded the Cork SO (1934), which he conducted for almost 60 years, and the Cork Music Teachers’ Association (1938), of which he remained chair for 50 years; he also co-founded the Cork Ballet Company (...


John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...


Bonnie J. Blackburn

[Lanfranchinus][Gafori, Franchino]

(b Lodi, Jan 14, 1451; d Milan, June 25, 1522). Italian theorist, composer and choirmaster. At home in both speculative and practical music, he was the first theorist to have a substantial number of his writings published, and his influence can be traced for more than a century, both in Italy and abroad.

Much of our knowledge stems from the contemporary biography by Pantaleone Malegolo, printed in the De harmonia: Gaffurius was born in Lodi to the soldier Bettino from Almenno in the territory of Bergamo and to Caterina Fissiraga of Lodi. He began theological studies early, at the Benedictine monastery of S Pietro in Lodi Vecchio (which he left after September 1473) and he was ordained priest in late 1473 or 1474. He studied music with Johannes Bonadies (or Godendach), probably in Lodi, where he sang in the cathedral on Ascension Day, 18 May 1474. Later that year, he went to Mantua with his father and spent two more years in diligent research in music. He then moved to Verona, where he taught publicly and wrote his ...


Etienne Darbellay

revised by Dorothea Baumann

(b Veytaux-Chillon, Montreux, April 26, 1922; d Pully, April 28, 1992). Swiss musicologist, conductor and composer. After his schooling at Montreux, Lausanne and Winterthur, where he learnt the violin and viola with Ernst Wolters, he studied literature and theology at Lausanne and took a course in conducting at Geneva with Baud-Bovy and Franz von Hösslin. He studied the violin at the Zürich Conservatory with Willem de Boer (diploma 1946) and musicology, church history and philosophy at the university. His principal teachers were Hindemith, Willy Burkhard, Willi Schuh and Antoine Cherbuliez. In 1947 he obtained the doctorat ès lettres from Zürich University with a dissertation on the Huguenot Psalter. He taught music history in Lausanne at the Conservatory and the Université Populaire (1956–87) and at the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale (1973–9). Throughout his life he was active as a choral and orchestral conductor. At the Bayreuth Festival he directed the Wagner Seminar (...


Ruth Pincoe

(b Norwich, April 11, 1912). Canadian composer, theorist and conductor of English origin. He moved to Canada in 1928, becoming a Canadian citizen in 1930. His composition teachers have included Alfred Whitehead in Montreal and Paul Hindemith at Yale University (1952–3). He also studied conducting with Willem van Otterloo in Utrecht (1956). From 1946 until his retirement in 1977, he taught at Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario. He also conducted the Queen’s SO (1946–54), and founded and conducted both the Kingston Choral Society (1953–7) and the New SO of Kingston (1954–7).

George’s music is in a 20th-century idiom characterized by traditional formal structures and modal harmonies, and influenced by his studies of ethnomusicology and the structural aspects of music. His operas are large-scale works based on historical events with librettos adapted from contemporary writing. He has also composed many choral pieces....


Zygmunt M. Szweykowski

(b Bydgoszcz, Feb 6, 1878; d Warsaw, Sept 27, 1943). Polish musicologist, conductor and composer. Ordained priest in 1902, he studied music at Regensburg with Haberl and Haller and musicology with Kinkeldey in Breslau (Wrocław) and with Wolf and Kretzschmar in Berlin. He took the doctorate at Breslau in 1913 with a dissertation on a 15th-century treatise. From 1925 to 1939 he was an assistant professor at the University of Poznań. He also taught at the Poznań Conservatory and at the theological seminary. From 1916 he was conductor of the Poznań Cathedral Choir and succeeded in making it one of the finest choirs in Poland between the wars. His main interest was church music, both early and contemporary. He was responsible for several editions and composed a number of church works himself.

Die ‘Musica Magistri Szydlovite’: ein polnischer Choraltraktat des XV. Jahrhunderts und seine Stellung in der Choraltheorie des Mittelalters...


Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

(b Bad Salzbrunn [now Szczawno-Zdrój], Silesia, Nov 20, 1925). German musicologist, choir director and composer. He studied singing with Hüsch, choir directing with Kurt Thomas, and musicology at the universities of Tübingen and Frankfurt, with sociology, Protestant theology and folklore as subsidiary subjects. In 1961 he received the doctorate at Frankfurt under Helmuth Osthoff with a dissertation proving through style criticism that Ghiselin and Verbonnet were the same person; he has also edited the complete works of that composer. He was Kantor at St Paul's in Stuttgart (1958–70) and in 1960 he founded the Stuttgart Schola Cantorum, which he led until it disbanded in 1990. He was adviser for new music for the South German Radio in Stuttgart (1969–88). In 1972 Pierre Boulez selected him to help in the planning of the Centre Beaubourg in Paris. His musicological estate is held by the Paul Sacher Stiftung....


Hanspeter Krellmann

revised by Erik Levi

(b Dohna, nr Dresden, March 20, 1883; d Cologne, July 31, 1960). German composer, conductor and musicologist. He studied in Leipzig with Riemann and Kretzschmar at the university and with Straube, Ruthhardt and Nikisch at the conservatory. Subsequently he was a pupil of Reger and Mottl in Munich. From 1907 he assisted Wolfrum at Heidelberg University and in the Bachverein there. He was appointed organist and Kantor at the Johanniskirche, Chemnitz, in 1909, and music director in Osnabrück the next year. Having established a conservatory in that city, he took a post as music director and professor extraordinary at Tübingen University (1919), where he obtained his doctorate (1923) and founded both the music institute and the university music department. An enthusiastic proponent of the Third Reich, he was particularly active from 1933 onwards in furnishing musicological material to support the regime, and was rewarded for his loyalty in ...


Árni Heimir Ingólfsson

(b Eyrarbakki, Nov 3, 1914; d Sept 18, 1994). Icelandic musicologist, composer, teacher and conductor. He attended the Reykjavík College of Music (1931–3) and subsequently studied at the Copenhagen Conservatory (1935), the Leipzig Conservatory (1936–9) and Leipzig University (musicology with Schultz, Husmann and Prufer). He continued his violin and composition studies at the Zürich Conservatory, graduating in 1949. He also took the doctorate in musicology at the University of Zürich in 1954.

His many appointments include roles as secretary of the newly founded Society of Musicians (1940–46) and of the Composers' Society (1945–7). In addition, he was a board member of STEF, the Icelandic performing rights society (1946–8), and was president of the State Cultural Fund's music committee (1962–6). He was assistant head of music at the Icelandic State Broadcasting Service (1959–66), professor at the University of Saskatchewan (...


Ramona H. Matthews

(Franz Richard)

(b Vienna, Sept 22, 1883; d Detroit, Sept 3, 1951). American composer, conductor and musicologist of Austrian birth. He studied at the Vienna Conservatory under Heuberger, Fuchs and Mandyczewski, and at the University of Vienna. Between 1908 and 1914 he conducted opera in various provincial theatres in Austria and Germany, wrote two operas (one later performed), and published the first of his many articles. After World War I he taught in Mannheim (1919–22) and Erfurt (1924–6) before being invited to Berlin as editor and administrator for the Reichsverbandes Deutscher Orchester und Orchestermusiker. He taught at the Stern Conservatory (1926–8) and at the Akademie für Kirchen- und Schulmusik (1927–34); concurrently he carried on research and editing, published several books and numerous articles and reviews, and composed a great deal of music.

Deprived of his position by the Nazis in 1934, Hernried went to Vienna, and in ...


Giselher Schubert

(b Hanau, nr Frankfurt, Nov 16, 1895; d Frankfurt, Dec 28, 1963). German composer, theorist, teacher, viola player and conductor. The foremost German composer of his generation, he was a figure central to both music composition and musical thought during the inter-war years.

Hindemith descended on his father’s side from shopkeepers and craftsmen who had settled primarily in the small Silesian community of Jauer (now Jawor, Poland), where the family can be traced back to the 17th century, and on his mother’s side from small farmers and shepherds in southern Lower Saxony. While no signs of musical interest can be found among the relatives of his mother, Maria Sophie Warnecke (1868–1949), his father, Robert Rudolf Emil Hindemith (1870–1915), came from a family of music lovers. Robert Rudolf supposedly ran away from home when his parents opposed his wish to become a musician; after arriving in Hesse, however, he became a painter and decorator. As he was never able to provide a secure income for his family, the Hindemiths were forced to move frequently. Paul spent three years of his childhood with his paternal grandfather in Naumburg. He was sincerely devoted to his mother, whom he is said to have resembled closely, even in similarity of gestures, and dedicated the first volume (...


Zygmunt M. Szweykowski

(b Lwów, July 7, 1882; d Kraków, Oct 27, 1953). Polish musicologist, composer and conductor. He studied music with Stanisław Niewiadomski and Henryk Jarecki at Lwów and musicology with Guido Adler in Vienna (1902–6), where he took the doctorate with a dissertation on Gomółka’s psalms. During his stay in Vienna he also studied composition under Herman Grädener and Arnold Schoenberg. In 1911 he completed the Habilitation at Kraków with a work on Italian influences on Polish music. He was successively lecturer in music history (1911), reader (1917) and full professor (1921) at Kraków University and later director of its musicology institute until his death. He gave courses at the universities and learned institutions of Rome, Padua, Bologna, Venice, Frankfurt, Vienna and Budapest. In 1934 he initiated a series entitled Rozprawy i Notatki Muzykologiczne, in which he intended to publish works by Kraków musicologists....


Janna Saslaw

(b Breslau [now Wrocław], Aug 13, 1831; d Leipzig, Feb 1, 1902). German composer, theorist, teacher and conductor. He studied first in Breslau and later at the Leipzig Conservatory. He left Leipzig to study the piano with Liszt in Weimar (1849–52); there he heard Wagner's Lohengrin, which greatly impressed him. After returning to Leipzig, he studied with E.F. Richter and privately with Moritz Hauptmann. Jadassohn taught the piano in Leipzig, then conducted the synagogue choir (1865), the Psalterion choral society (1866) and the Musikverein Euterpe concerts (1867–9). In 1871 he was appointed teacher of harmony, counterpoint, composition and piano at the conservatory, and in 1893 named royal professor. His students included Busoni, George Chadwick, Delius, Grieg, Karg-Elert and Felix Weingartner.

Although successful as a performer, theorist and teacher, Jadassohn considered himself primarily a composer. He wrote works for piano, chamber ensemble, orchestra, chorus and solo voices, comprising over 140 opus numbers, but was perhaps best known for his canonic compositions: the Serenade for Orchestra op.35, two serenades for piano opp.8 and 125, the ballet music op.58 and the vocal duets opp.9, 36, 38 and 43. He also edited and arranged works by Bach, Brahms, Chopin, Mendelssohn, Schubert, Schumann, Wagner and others....


J.W. Junker

[Edward] (Leilani)

(b Honolulu, Hawaii, Aug 4, 1927). Hawaiian musician, bandleader, songwriter, and researcher. A leading figure in the late 20th century revival of Hawaiian culture, Kamae has led the seminal Sons of Hawaii band for over 50 years. He has reintroduced a large number of classic Hawaiian songs from earlier eras, composed several standards, and has documented important Hawaiian topics on over 1000 hours of film.

He began his career in 1948 performing light classics and pop with Shoi Ikemi as The Ukulele Rascals. Self taught, Kamae developed chord voicings and plucking techniques that expanded the instrument’s reach. In 1959 Kamae met Gabby Pahinui and formed Sons of Hawaii. He radically transformed his style for the group, moving between rhythmic accompaniment and pa‘ani (soloing) in a fluid give and take. He also began singing in a distinctive voice full of Hawaiian vocal inflections. With mentoring from scholar Mary Kawena Pukui and others, Kamae began researching older Hawaiian repertoire and composing. His arrangement of waltzes, such as “Sanoe,” and other songs of the 19th century introduced a classical elegance into the group. At the same time The Sons performed downhome party favorites, like “‘Ama ‘Ama.”...


(b Karlsbad [now Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic], April 1, 1907; d Bloomington, IN, Sept 9, 1984). American ethnomusicologist, conductor and composer of Austro-Hungarian origin. He studied at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik with Franz Schreker and Curt Sachs and at Prague University with Gustav Becking and Paul Nettl. He conducted opera in Karlovy Vary and Eger, Bohemia, 1927–8. His appointments included those of music director for All-India Radio (1935–46), head of the piano department at the Conservatory of Halifax, Nova Scotia (1947–8), conductor of the Winnipeg SO (1949–56), and professor of musicology at Indiana University (1957–77). Kaufmann is best known for his two books, The Ragas of North India (1968) and The Ragas of South India (1976), in which he exhaustively catalogued rāga according to indigenous taxonomies. His other writings concentrated on the transcription and notation of Asian music. His compositions show a mixture of Eastern and Western influences, often blending tonal and serial elements into dissonant polyphonic textures....


Charlotte Erwin

(b Schwanenburg, Livonia [now Gulbene, Latvia], July 5, 1874; d Niederwartha bei Dresden, Aug 21, 1949). German conductor, composer and musicologist. He spent his youth in St Petersburg. In 1900 he enrolled at the Leipzig Conservatory where he studied the cello, score-reading and counterpoint; at the same time he studied musicology with Kretzschmar and Riemann at the university. From 1906 to 1918 he was active in Prague as a choral and orchestral conductor and also delivered lectures in music history and aesthetics. In 1918 he was appointed director of the Berlin Sing-Akademie and succeeded Siegmund von Hausegger as conductor of the Berlin PO. Meanwhile he continued to make appearances as a guest conductor. In 1926 he was elected to membership of the Berlin Academy of Arts and honoured by the founding of the Keussler-Gesellschaft in Prague. In the following year he and Kurt Thomas were the first recipients of the Beethoven Prize. Keussler went in ...


(b Ribeira Seca, S Jorge, Azores, May 11, 1869; d Lisbon, July 18, 1934). Portuguese conductor, composer and musicologist. He studied under Vieira, Gazul, Montinho de Almeida and Soromenho at the Lisbon Conservatory, where he was made professor of piano in 1892. Three years later he went to Paris to study at the Conservatoire under Pessard, Bourgault-Ducoudray, Libert and Widor, and at the Schola Cantorum under d’Indy and Guilmant. Thereafter he established himself as a conductor in Paris, in other French cities and throughout Europe. He founded the Concerts Historiques in Nantes (1905) and the Filarmonia de Lisboa (1923). A friend of Debussy and of Fauré, he numbered Ansermet among his pupils.

(selective list)


Charles Shere

(b Portland, OR, March 3, 1938). American composer, conductor and musicologist . He studied at Pomona College and the University of California, Berkeley (MA 1962); in 1958 he was a Crofts Fellow at the Berkshire Music Center. After playing the horn in the Oakland SO and San Francisco Opera and Ballet orchestras (1960–65), he travelled to Poland (1965–6) on a joint US-Polish government grant to investigate contemporary Polish music. He subsequently designed the electronic music studio at UCLA, where he taught and directed two ensembles (1967–70); later teaching appointments included positions at the Centro Simón Bolívar, Caracas, and Reed College. In 1980, after turning to private teaching, he became involved in early music performance, serving as the first music director of the Portland Baroque Orchestra (1984–5) and the coordinator of the Portland Handel Festival (from 1985). He has written extensively on intonation and alternative tunings, as well as on the performance of ancient Greek and Latin verse....


Sabine Meine

(b Warsaw, Feb 17, 1913; d Paris, Aug 29, 1972). French music theorist, teacher, conductor and composer of Polish-Latvian origin. He spent his early years in Warsaw and, following a stay in Berlin, came to Paris in 1929 or 1930. It was there that he met musicians associated with Schoenberg, including Dessau, Kolisch and Erich Itor Kahn. Leibowitz’s claims of having met Schoenberg and studied with Webern in the early 1930s remain unsubstantiated: it appears that his knowledge of the their music was acquired primarily through intensive study of their scores, an activity he continued throughout the war years, which he spent fleeing the German occupying forces in Vichy France. He made personal contact with Schoenberg in 1945, and with Adorno in 1946.

Leibowitz played a crucial role in the dissemination of the music of the Second Viennese School after its wartime suppression in Nazi-occupied countries. In 1947...