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Bo Marschner


(b Århus, Sept 3, 1840; d Copenhagen, June 8, 1919). Danish administrator, music critic and composer. A banker by profession, Fabricius remains best known for his many practical initiatives in Danish musical life. In 1871 he founded the Samfund til Udgivelse af Dansk Musik (Society for the Publication of Danish Music), whose president he was from 1887 until his death. This society is today the principal organization for the publication of contemporary Danish music. He was the founder of the choral society Vega (1872) and a founder-member of the Copenhagen Concert Society (Koncertforening; 1874), a progressive musical society which existed until 1893. It was chiefly due to him that the first regular concert hall, the Koncertpalae, was built in Copenhagen during 1884–8. As a music critic his writings stand out from the generally poor music criticism of his time.

As a composer, Fabricius has never been highly rated in Denmark, perhaps chiefly because his practical enterprise overshadowed his musical activities. His early ...


Craig Resta

(b Peekskill, NY, May 12, 1931; d Washington, DC, June 11, 1995). American writer, educator, spokesman, and advocate for arts education. He graduated from the State University of New York at Potsdam (BME 1952), Northwestern University (MME 1957), and Boston University (DMA 1964). Fowler taught public school music in Rochester, New York (1952–6), was a music supervisor in Mansfield, Pennsylvania (1957–62), and served on the faculties of Mansfield State College (now University) (1957–62) and Northern Illinois University (1964–5). He was an editor for the Music Educators Journal (1965–71) and Musical America (1974–89) and an independent arts consultant (1971–95). An extraordinarily active scholar, he wrote and edited over 230 articles and authored and contributed to several books, most notably Can We Rescue the Arts for America’s Children? Coming to Our Senses—10 Years Later...


Paula Morgan


(b Chicago, Dec 27, 1928). American critic and music administrator. He studied at the University of Chicago (Bachelor of Philosophy 1947). After working as an assistant to Irving Kolodin at the Saturday Review (1962–3) and as a staff critic for the New York Times (1965–6), he was assistant to the director of the Eastman School (1966–70) and director of public relations for the St Louis SO (1971–2). He was executive director of the Music Critics Association, 1974–90, and served as a contributing editor of Stereo Review (from 1973), record critic for the Washington Star (1972–5) and the Washington Post (1976–84) and consultant to the music director of the National SO (from 1981). Freed is the author of numerous articles and reviews for newspapers in New York, Washington, Chicago, Minneapolis and St Louis, and has written for such journals as ...


John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...


Barbara Chmara-Żackiewicz

(b Warsaw, Aug 18, 1856; d Lemberg, Oct 30, 1912). Polish composer, choral director, teacher and critic. After graduating in piano and music theory from the music school of the Muza music society in Kraków (after 1867), he subsequently studied composition with F. Krenn at the Vienna Conservatory, and with Rheinberger and M. Sachs in Munich. From 1879 to 1881 he lived in Kraków, where he began his career as composer and critic. In 1882 he was conductor of the Andante Choir in Leipzig and associate répétiteur for the opera chorus in Weimar; here his songs came to the attention of Liszt. In 1883 he went to Italy to deepen his knowledge of the art of singing, and consulted various teachers including F. Lamperti. From the autumn of 1884 he was conductor of the Music Society in Lemberg, and at the end of 1888 he went to Dresden and Leipzig, where he became musical advisor to the publisher of his songs, Leuckart. From ...


John Snelson

(Friedrich) [Gallas, Brian Roy]

(b Wellington, New Zealand, Feb 15, 1946). New Zealand writer on musical theatre. He studied law and classics at Canterbury University, New Zealand, subsequently joining the New Zealand Opera company as a bass singer. After moving to London he became a casting director and then a theatrical agent in musical theatre; from 1990 he devoted himself to writing and broadcasting on this subject. His pioneering two-volume study The British Musical Theatre (London, 1986), won several awards: its thorough survey of performances has ensured its place as an essential reference work. His later Encyclopedia of Musical Theatre (Oxford, 1994) is ambitious in its scope, displaying both the breadth of Gänzl’s interest and, through its selections and judgments, his characteristically personal view of the subject. His other books include Gänzl’s Book of the Musical Theatre (with Andrew Lamb; London, 1988), a companion guide in the manner of Kobbé, ...


Daniel Zager

(b New York, Dec 18, 1928; d Feb 23, 2019). American writer. After attending the University of Missouri (1946–50) and Columbia University (1950) he worked for Prestige Records (1950–55). With Leonard Feather he collaborated on The Encyclopedia of Jazz (1955), for which he was an assistant writer and editor, and The Encyclopedia of Jazz in the Sixties (1966), and he was an author with Feather of The Encyclopedia of Jazz in the Seventies (1976) and the Biographical Encyclopedia of Jazz (1999). Gitler wrote for such periodicals as Metronome, Jazz Magazine, Down Beat (of which he was an associate editor), and Jazz Times, produced film scripts on Louis Armstrong and Lionel Hampton for the US Information Service, and was a commentator for radio station WBAI, New York; he also taught at CUNY. Among his more notable writings is ...


Peter Heyworth

(b London, May 3, 1908; d Oxford, June 28, 2000). English music administrator, pianist, educationist and critic. He was educated at Christ’s Hospital and Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, where he was an organ scholar, and studied with Artur Schnabel in Berlin (1930–33). But though he developed into a fine pianist and made some successful concert appearances, notably in chamber music and in a series of Mozart concertos, which he performed with impeccable technique and style, he at first became a music critic. After a brief period on the Daily Telegraph he joined The Observer (1934–45), succeeding A.H. Fox Strangways as chief critic (1939). He began a new phase of his career as a musical educationist in 1948, when he founded the Summer School of Music at Bryanston, Dorset; it moved in 1953 to Dartington Hall, Devon, and Glock remained its music director until ...


Howard Rye

(b Ohain, Belgium, May 21, 1898; d Brussels, June 27, 1984). Belgian writer. He first encountered syncopated music in 1918 as a civilian interpreter for a Canadian army unit. In 1919 he heard (Louis) Mitchell’s Jazz Kings in Brussels and thereafter sought out jazz wherever it was to be heard. In 1922–3 he led a band of Brussels University students called the Doctor’s Mysterious Six. In 1932 he published Aux frontières du jazz, dedicated to Louis Armstrong, and generally acknowledged as the first serious full-length book on jazz. He visited the USA in 1939 and the following year fled the Nazi occupation of Belgium, eventually reaching New York via Portugal. There he devoted himself to jazz, helping to organize the annual Esquire Jazz Concerts, and writing a number of books of enduring worth which make use of original interview material with New Orleans pioneers. After returning home in ...


Edward Berger

(Henry, jr)

(b New York, Dec 15, 1910; d New York, July 10, 1987). American jazz and popular record producer and critic. He was born into a wealthy family, and attended Yale University. As a teenager, he became fascinated by black music and was drawn to the clubs and theatres of Harlem. He produced his first records in the early 1930s, and in 1933 recorded an important series of sessions for English Columbia featuring Fletcher Henderson, Benny Carter and Benny Goodman, whose orchestra he helped to form in 1934; from 1935 to 1937 he supervised many of Teddy Wilson’s sessions for Brunswick with Billie Holiday as soloist. Hammond was also an early advocate of Count Basie, and was influential in bringing his orchestra to national prominence in 1936. In 1938 and 1939 he organized the two historic ‘Spirituals to Swing’ concerts in Carnegie Hall. A tireless talent scout and champion of racial equality, he later furthered the careers of artists as varied as Charlie Christian (whom he teamed with Goodman in ...


Craig Havigurst

(b Attica, IN, Nov 9, 1895; d Virginia Beach, VA, May 8, 1968). American journalist, radio producer, and founder of the Grand Ole Opry. Trained as a print journalist, Hay was reluctantly drawn into radio during the early 1920s. Hay wrote for the Memphis Commercial Appeal before honing his air persona on the paper’s radio station, WMC. He then took his signature steamboat whistle and nickname “The Solemn Old Judge” to WLS in Chicago, where he helped produce the National Barn Dance and was voted the nation’s most popular radio announcer. Edwin Craig, founder of WSM-AM, invited Hay to his station’s grand opening on 5 Oct 1925 and offered him the post of “radio director” shortly thereafter. Within weeks of starting his new job, Hay invited fiddler Uncle Jimmy Thompson to perform live on a Saturday night. The slot became a weekly “barn dance,” which Hay would name the ...


Gary W. Kennedy

(b Reading, PA, Dec 18, 1932). American writer. He learned clarinet from the age of 12 and taught himself to play alto saxophone. After studying music theory at Florida State University (BA 1961) he played with the pianist John Benson Brooks (c1961–3), whose trio explored 12-tone composition and improvisation. From the early 1960s Heckman contributed to Down Beat, Metronome, and Jazz Review, and in the process he wrote a number of musical analyses of jazz performances (notably “Miles Davis Times Three,” DB, xxix/23 (1962), 16), which was an unusual practice at the time. Around the same period he played occasionally with Don Ellis, broadcast a jazz radio show on WBAI-FM in New York (1963–4), and performed in the October Revolution in Jazz (1964). From 1964 to 1972, with the tenor saxophonist Ed Summerlin, he co-led the ensemble Improvisational Jazz Workshop, in which Steve Kuhn, Ron Carter, Steve Swallow, Ed Shaugnessy, and Charli Persip were among their sidemen; the group recorded an eponymous album in ...


Israel J. Katz

(b Orense, Oct 1, 1918). Spanish pianist, composer, conductor, administrator, critic and writer on music. He studied piano and composition with José Cubiles and Conrado del Campo at the Madrid Conservatory, taking diplomas in piano (1935) and composition (1944); later he was a pupil of Marguerite Long, Lazare Lévy and Yves Nat in Paris and of Isidore Philipp in New York, and studied conducting with Luís de Freitas Branco and Louis Fourestier. He has made concert tours of Europe, North Africa and the USA. His professional activities have included the founding (1957) and directing of the Orense Conservatory of Music, giving piano masterclasses and teaching the interpretation of Spanish music at Música en Compostela (from 1958) and organizing the Manuel de Falla seminars and courses at Granada. He created (1962) the Semanas de Música Religiosa at Cuenca and as music adviser to the Instituto de Cultura Hispánica planned music festivals in Spain and the USA in collaboration with the Organization of American States; he has served as secretary-general of the Spanish section of ISCM (whose festivals he organized in ...


Barry Kernfeld

(b New York, March 2, 1923; d El Cerrito, CA, March 1, 2015). Record producer. After graduating from Columbia University (BA English 1943) and serving in the army he worked for a publishing company; from 1948 he wrote for Record Changer, published by his former classmate Bill Grauer. In 1952 he and Grauer initiated for RCA Victor’s X label a series of 10-inch albums of reissues of important recordings by such artists as Johnny Dodds, Jelly Roll Morton, Bennie Moten, and King Oliver. In the following year they founded the record company and label Riverside, which at first offered a similar series of reissues but soon made many important new recordings in bop and related styles, including seminal albums by Thelonious Monk and Bill Evans (ii); Keepnews acted as producer for most of these sessions himself. Following a period during which he undertook freelance work he ran the company and record label ...


Mark Anthony Neal

(b Chicago, IL, Jan 8, 1967). American R&B singer, writer, producer, and arranger. Kelly was born on the South side of Chicago. Raised, with his three siblings, by a single mother, he was encouraged to pursue a musical career by his high school music teacher and mentor, Lena McLin, who was the chair of the music department at the Kenwood Academy and the niece of the legendary gospel music composer Thomas Dorsey. In high school Kelly formed the group MGM (Musically Gifted Men), which won a $100,000 grand prize on the television talent show Big Break, hosted by Natalie Cole. The group eventually signed with Jive Records, though after creative and financial tensions, three of the members were replaced and the group renamed R. Kelly and Public Announcement. After a moderately successful debut that produced the hit singles “She’s Got That Vibe” and “Honey Love,” Kelly left the group in early ...


Rosemary Williamson

(b Altrincham, Feb 23, 1951). British music critic and administrator. He read modern history at Oxford (BA 1972), then worked for the English Bach Festival (1973–6) and BBC Radio 3 (1976–9), before becoming music critic of the New Yorker. He returned to England in 1982 and was music critic of The Times (1982–5), music editor of The Listener (1982–7) and music critic of The Observer (1986–92, chief music critic from 1987); he was also editor of Early Music (1983–92). In 1991 he was artistic advisor for the ‘Mozart Now’ festival at the South Bank Centre and also presented two programmes in the series ‘Mozart Days’ for Radio 3. In March 1992 he was appointed controller of BBC Radio 3 and from October 1995 has held the directorship of the BBC Promenade Concerts. In 1998 he relinquished his position at Radio 3 in order to concentrate on projects for the Proms and for the millennium celebrations....


Guido M. Gatti

revised by John C.G. Waterhouse

(b Rome, Nov 22, 1896; d Rome, July 1, 1973). Italian composer, music organizer and critic. He studied with Respighi and G.F. Malipiero, graduating from the Parma Conservatory in 1921, but in his work on behalf of modern music he came closer to Casella. He actively participated in the affairs of the Corporazione delle Nuove Musiche and the Italian section of the ISCM; and he showed the same zeal as director of the music division of the Direzione Generale dello Spettacolo attached to the Ministry of Popular Culture, as well as later in his post as manager of the Teatro Comunale, Florence (Maggio Musicale Fiorentino), 1936–44. He was then artistic director of the Teatro alla Scala, Milan (1947–9), and a director of the music department of Italian radio (1949–58). In 1959 the centre of his activity shifted to Venice, where he helped to organize, among other events, the Venice festivals. In the 1960s he also taught music history at the Università Italiana per Stranieri in Perugia....


Travis D. Stimeling

[Charles Stacy ]

(b Knoxville, TN, June 21, 1921; d Nashville, TN, March 7, 2012). American country music journalist, publisher, and promoter. Charlie Lamb reshaped the Nashville music industry’s business practices during the 1950s and 60s and promoted Nashville as an international music center. Lamb began his career in Knoxville, where, among other jobs, he booked artists to perform on radio station WROL and reported for the Knoxville Journal. After moving to Nashville in 1951, he joined Cash Box as a columnist and ad salesman and later formed the Charlie Lamb Agency to promote several top recording artists. Lamb was a founding member of the Country Music Disc Jockey Association and organized an annual DJ convention that brought thousands of disc jockeys to Nashville. In August 1956, Lamb founded Country Music Reporter (renamed Music Reporter in 1957), a trade paper that covered the Nashville music industry and offered expanded chart coverage for country singles and albums. Selling ...


John Rockwell

revised by Andrea F. Bohlman

(b Brooklyn, NY, May 14, 1947). American rock critic, record producer, and manager. While a history student at Brandeis University (BA 1969) he was the main critic for Crawdaddy! (1966–7) and contributed a regular full-page column to Rolling Stone (1967–9). After graduating, he made his first attempts at record production with the MC5 and Livingston Taylor. In 1970 he returned to criticism, first for the Boston Phoenix (1970–2) and then the Real Paper (1972–5). From 1971 he was recordings editor for Rolling Stone, leaving rock criticism in 1975. In 1972 he had already published a collection of his writings. Landau’s authoritative style is direct in its assessment. His knowledge of rock history and his penchant for technical explanation contributed to his tremendous influence on rock’s development. Landau’s longtime association with Bruce Springsteen began in 1974 when he notably described the artist’s “rock and roll future” in the ...


(b Brussels, May 23, 1735; d Vienna, Dec 13, 1814). Flemish writer. As the head of one of the most prominent aristocratic families in the southern Netherlands, he had a primarily military and diplomatic career in the service of Austria. His wit and his cheerful disposition won him the friendship of writers (including Voltaire, Rousseau, Casanova and Goethe) and of monarchs (Catherine II, Frederick II, Joseph II and Louis XVI). He expressed his ideas on the theatre in his Lettres à Eugénie sur les spectacles (1774, 2/1796). He himself wrote some 30 dramatic works, including masquerades performed in Brussels and comédies mêlées d'ariettes et de vaudevilles intended for society theatres (Colette et Lucas, 1779; Le désenchantement des compagnons d'Ulysse, 1796; La noce interrompue, 1796; Le sultan du Congo, ou Mangogoul, 1796). During the 1770s he was involved in the financial and artistic management of the Théâtre de la Monnaie in Brussels, which experienced a period of unprecedented brilliance at this time. His ...